The Crampton-type locomotive was built in various countries from 1846 to 1864. It was a steam-powered locomotive, particularly well suited for the transport of passengers because of its stability and its speed: the author refers to it as the “racehorse of railways”.
A Crampton locomotive could haul 12 to 16 carriages, weighing up to 100 to 130 tons at a speed of 37 mph (60 km/h). When running on its own, it could reach 75 mph (120 km/h). This achievement was made possible by the large diameter of its two driving wheels, its short-stroke piston and high steam pressure. Its average weight was 30 tons. Crampton locomotives remained in use until the early twentieth century.