+ is the sign of addition; as c + d denotes that d is to be added to c;
- is the sign of subtraction; thus, c - d implies that d is to be subtracted from c.
x is the sign of multiplication; as c x d means the product of c and d.
÷ is the sign of division; c ÷ d signifies the quotient of c and d.
= is the sign of equality; thus c + d = e means the sum of c and d equals e.
√ is the sign of the square root; thus √x denotes the square root of a.
∛ is the sign of the cube root, and generally any root of a quantity may be denoted by this sign, with the index of the root placed over it; thus ∛ signifies the cube root, ∜ the biquadrate root, etc.; but they may likewise be represented by the reciprocals of these indices ; as x , x , implying the square and cube roots of x.