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b:botany

« Dictionary Index « Definitions under B


Botany

The following is a list of the Technical Terms most commonly employed in Botany:

A - B - C - D - E - F - G - H - I - L - M - N - O - P - Q - R - S - T - U - V

A

Abnormal:

contrary to general rules.

Accumbent:

lying against anything, in distinction to lying upon; as the cotyledons of some cruciferous plants.

Acerose:

stiff and slender and sharp-pointed, as the leaves of a pine-tree.

Achenium:

a small, hard, one-seeded fruit, resembling a seed.

Aciculate:

needle-shaped.

Acinaciform:

scymitar-shaped.

Acinus:

a bunch of succulent berries, as of grapes.

Acrogen:

a plant which grows at its end only, without increasing in diameter, as ferns, and all flowerless plants.

Aculeate:

covered with prickles.

Aculeus:

a prickle.

Acuminate:

tapering to the point, but flat.

Adnate:

growing to any thing by the whole length.

Adventitious:

appearing accidentally.

AEstivation:

the arrangement of the parts of the flower before they expand.

Alabastrus:

a flower-bud.

Albumen:

a substance interposed in some seeds between the embryo and the seed coats.

Alburnum:

the young wood; sap-wood.

Amentum:

a catkin; the male inflorescence of the hazel, &c.

Amplexicaul:

clasping a stem.

Anastomosing:

the growing together of two parts which meet from different directions.

-androus:

a Greek termination expressive of the male sex.

Anfractuous:

doubled abruptly in several different directions.

Angiocarpous:

having seeds enclosed in a pericarp.

Annotinous:

a year old.

Anther:

the case containing pollen.

Apetalous:

having no petals.

Apiculate:

abruptly pointed.

Apocarpous:

where the carpels are distinct from each other.

Apophysis:

the enlarged base of the theca of some mosses.

Apothecium:

the shield, or mass of reproductive matter of a lichen.

Appendiculate:

having some kind of appendages.

Arachnoid:

resembling a spider's web.

Areolate:

divided into little spaces.

Aril

a peculiar wrapper of some seeds, as the mace of the nutmeg.

Arista:

the beard or awn of grasses.

Asci

the cases in which the spores of lichens are enclosed.

Ascidium:

a hollow leaf looking like a water vessel; as the pitcher of Nepenthes.

Attenuated:

gradually tapering to a point without becoming flat.

Auriculate:

having two lobes (like ears) at the base.

Awn:

see Arista.

Axil:

the acute angle formed by the junction of the leaf, &c. to its axis.

Axillary:

growing in an axil.

Axis:

the root and stem either taken together or separately.

A - B - C - D - E - F - G - H - I - L - M - N - O - P - Q - R - S - T - U - V

B

Baccate:

fruit covered with soft flesh.

Barbate:

covered with long hairs resembling a beard.

Beard:

a tuft of long hairs.

Biconjugate:

in two pairs, placed .side by side.

Bidentate:

having two teeth.

Bifarious:

arranged in two rows.

Bifid:

divided into two shallow lobes.

Bifoliate:

having two leaflets.

Bifurcate:

twice forked.

Bijugous:

in two pairs, placed end to end.

Binate:

growing in pairs.

Bipartite:

divided into two deep lobes.

Bipinnate:

twice pinnate.

Biserrate:

twice serrate.

Brachiate:

when branches stand nearly at right angles to the stem from which they proceed.

Bract:

the leaf or leaflet from the axil of which a flower grows.

Bulb:

a scaly, underground bud.

Bulbotuber:

a short, roundish, underground stem resembling a bulb.

A - B - C - D - E - F - G - H - I - L - M - N - O - P - Q - R - S - T - U - V

C

Caducous:

falling off sooner or later.

Caesious:

of a bluish grey colour.

Caespitose:

growing in tufts.

Calcar:

a spur or horn; as in the Nasturtium.

Calcarate:

having a spur or horn.

Calyculate:

having a whorl of bracts on the outside of a calyx, or of an involucre.

Calyptra:

the hood of a moss.

Calyx:

the external envelope of a flower.

Cambium:

a viscid secretion formed in the spring between the bark and wood of Exogens.

Campanulate:

bell-shaped.

Canaliculate:

channelled.

Cancellate:

a leaf which has veins without connecting parenchyma.

Capitate:

growing in a head.

Capitulum:

a collection of flowers in a head.

Capsule:

any dry many-seeded fruit.

Carinate:

having a kind of keel.

Carnose:

fleshy.

Carpel:

one of the parts of a compound pistil; a single leaf rolled up into one of the integers of a pistil.

Carunculate:

a seed having fungous excrescences growing near its hilum.

Caryopsis:

a dry one-seeded fruit resembling a seed, but with no distinction between the seed coat and pericarp.

Caudate:

prolonged into a sort of tail.

Cauline:

of or belonging to the stem.

Cernuous:

drooping.

Chalaza:

a spot on a seed indicating the place where the nucleus is united to the seminal integuments.

Ciliated:

fringed with hairs like an eyelash.

Cinereous:

ash-coloured.

Circinate:

rolled inwards from the point to the base.

Circumscissile:

dividing into two parts by a spontaneous transverse separation.

Cirrhous:

terminating in a tendril.

Clavate:

club-shaped.

Clam:

the stalk of a petal.

Clypeate:

resembling a round buckler.

Cochleate:

resembling the bowl of a spoon.

Collum:

the point where the stem and root are combined.

Columella:

a central part of the fruit of a moss, round which the spores are deposited.

Column:

the combination of stamens and style in Orchideous and other plants.

Comose:

having hairs at one or both ends, if speaking of seeds; being terminated by coloured empty bracts, if applied to inflorescences.

Conduplicate:

doubled together.

Confluent:

growing together so that the line of junction is lost to the sight.

Conjugate:

growing in pairs.

Connate:

growing together so that the line of junction remains perceptible.

Connective:

the fleshy part that combines the two lobes of an anther.

Connivent:

converging, as the anther of a potato blossom.

Conoidal:

approaching a conical form.

Continuous:

proceeding &om something else without apparent interruption.

Contorted:

twisted in such a way that all the parts have a similar direction, as the segments of the flower of an Oleander.

Convolute:

rolled together.

Corculum:

the rudimentary axis which connects the cotyledons of the embryo.

Cordate:

heart-shaped.

Coriaceous:

of a leathery texture.

Cormus:

a solid, roundish, underground stem, as in Crocus.

Corneous:

of a horny texture.

Corniculate:

shaped like a slender horn.

Corolla:

the second of the two envelopes that surround the stamens and pistil.

Corona:

a combination of fertile and barren stamens into a disk, as in Stapelia.

Corymbose:

when the branches surrounding a common axis are shortest at the top and longest at the bottom, so as to form a level-topped whole.

Costa:

the midrib of a leaf.

Cotyledons:

the leaves of the embryo.

Crateriform:

shaped like a goblet.

Crenelled or Crenated:

having rounded notches at the edges.

Crested:

having some, unusual and striking appendage arising from the middle.

Cruciate:

when four parts are so arranged as to resemble the arms of a Maltese cross.

Cucullate:

hooded, rolled inwards so as to conceal any thing lying within.

Culm:

the straw of grasses.

Cuneate:

wedge-shaped.

Cupule:

the cup of the acorn, the husk of the filbert chestnut, &c.; a. peculiar combination of bracts.

Cuspidate:

abruptly rounded off with a. projecting point in the middle.

Cuticle:

the external skin.

Cyathiform:

cup-shaped, more contracted at the orifice than crateriform.

Cymbiform:

having the form of a boat.

Cyme:

an inflorescence having a corymbose form, but consisting of repeatedly-branched divisions.

Cymose:

resembling a cyme in appearance.

A - B - C - D - E - F - G - H - I - L - M - N - O - P - Q - R - S - T - U - V

D

Decandrous:

having ten stamens.

Deciduous:

falling off.

Declinate:

curved downwards.

Decumbent:

lying prostrate, but rising again.

Decurrent:

produced downwards, as the base of a leaf down the stem.

Decussate:

crossing at right angles.

Dehiscence:

the act of opening of anther or fruit.

Deltoid:

having the form of a triangle or Greek A.

Dendroidal:

resembling a small tree.

Dentate:

with sharp-pointed notches and intermediate curves instead of re-entering angles.

Depauperated:

imperfectly developed; looking as if ill-formed from want of sufficient nutriment.

Depressed:

flattened from point to base.

Diadelphous:

having the stamens in two parcels.

Diandrous:

having two stamens.

Dichotomous:

repeatedly divided into two branches.

Dicotyledonous:

having two cotyledons.

Didymous:

growing in pairs, or twins; only applied to solids and not to flat surfaces.

Didynamous:

having two pairs of stamens of unequal length.

Digitate:

fingered, diverging from a common centre, as the fingers from the palm.

Dimidiate:

half-formed, or halved, or split into two halves.

Dioecious:

having stamens on one plant and pistils on another.

Dipterous:

having two wings.

Discoidal:

with the central part of a flat body differently coloured or marked from the margin.

Disk:

a fleshy circle Interposed between the stamens and pistils.

Dissepiments:

the vertical partitions of a compound fruit.

Distichous:

arranged in two rows.

Divaricating:

diverging at an obtuse angle.

Dodecandrous:

having 12 stamens.

Dolabriform:

hatchet-shaped.

Drupe:

such a fruit as the peach, consisting of a stem surrounded by flesh or fibrous matter.

Ducts:

spiral vessels that will not unroll.

Dumose:

having a compact bushy form.

Duramen:

the heart-wood of timber.

A - B - C - D - E - F - G - H - I - L - M - N - O - P - Q - R - S - T - U - V

E

Echinate:

covered. with hard sharp points.

Elaters:

little spirally-twisted hygrometrical threads that disperse the spores of Jungermannias.

Elementary organs:

the minute parts of which the texture of plants is composed.

Emarginate:

having a notch at the point.

Embryo:

the rudimentary plant before germination commences.

Endocarp:

the hard lining of some pericarps.

Endogen:

a plant which increases in diameter by addition to its centre, as a palm-tree.

Enneandrous:

having 9 stamens.

Ensiform:

having the form of a straight and narrow sword blade.

Epicarp:

the external layer of the pericarp.

Epidermis:

the skin of a plant, in the language of some writers; the cortical integument according to others.

Epigynous:

growing upon the top of the ovary, or seeming to do so.

Equitant:

when leaves are so arranged that the base of each is enclosed within the opposite base of that which is next below it; as in Iris.

Estivation:

see AEstivation.

Exogen:

a plant which increases in diameter by the addition of new wood to the outside of the old wood; as an oak-tree.

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F

Farinaceous:

mealy.

Fasciated:

banded.

Fasciculated:

collected in clusters.

Fastigiate:

when the branches of any plant are pressed close to the main stem, as in the Lombardy poplar.

Filament:

the stalk of the anther.

Filiform:

slender and round like a thread.

Fistular:

tubular but closed at each end; as the leaf of an onion.

Flabelliform:

fan-shaped.

Flagelliform:

resembling the thong of a whip.

Flexuose:

wavy.

Floccose:

covered with little irregular patches of woolliness.

Floret:

a little flower.

Floscule:

ditto.

Foliaceous:

having the colour and texture of a common green leaf.

Foliation:

the arrangement of young leaves within the leaf-bud.

Follicle:

a simple fruit opening by its ventral suture only.

Foramen:

the passage through the integuments of an ovule by which impregnating matter is introduced into the nucleus.

Fovilla:

the fertilizing principle of pollen.

Frond:

the leaf of a fern or of a palm.

Fruit:

the full-grown ripened pistil.

Fugacious:

lasting but a short time.

Fungoid:

resembling a fungus; that is, irregular in form and fleshy in texture.

Funiculus:

the stalk by which some seeds are attached to the placenta.

Fusiform:

spindle-shaped, thickest in the middle, and tapering to each end.

A - B - C - D - E - F - G - H - I - L - M - N - O - P - Q - R - S - T - U - V

G

Galbulus:

a small cone whose scales are all consolidated into a fleshy ball, as in Juniper.

Galea:

the upper lip of a labiate flower.

Geniculate:

knee-jointed, when a stem bends suddenly in its middle.

Gibbous:

prominent, projecting.

Glabrous:

having no hairs.

Gladiate:

the same as ensiform, but broader and shorter.

Gland:

1. the fruit of the oak, the hazel, &c.

2. an elevation of the cuticle which usually secretes either acrid or resinous matter.

Glandular:

covered with glands of the second kind.

Glaucous:

covered with bloom like a plum.

Glochidate:

covered with hairs which are rigid and hooked at their point.

Glume:

one of the bracts of grasses.

Gymnospermous:

having seeds which ripen without being enclosed in a pericarp.

Gynobase:

an elevated part of the growing point of a flower-bud, rising between the carpels and throwing them into an oblique position.

Gyrate:

see Circinate. Also, surrounded by an elastic ring, as the theca of ferns.

A - B - C - D - E - F - G - H - I - L - M - N - O - P - Q - R - S - T - U - V

H

Hastate:

having the form of a halbert-head; that is, with a lance-shaped centre crossed at the base by two lobes of a similar form standing at right angles with the centre.

Helmet:

the hooded upper lip of some flowers.

Heptandrous:

having 7 stamens.

Hexandrous:

having 6 stamens.

Hilum:

the scar left upon a seed when it is separated from the placenta.

Hirsute:

covered with harsh long hairs.

Hymenium:

the gills of a mushroom; that part in Fungi where the spores are placed.

Hypocrateriform:

salver-shaped; having a cylindrical tube and a flat border spreading away from it.

Hypogynous:

arising from immediately below the pistil.

A - B - C - D - E - F - G - H - I - L - M - N - O - P - Q - R - S - T - U - V

I

Icosandrous:

having 20 or more perigynous stamens.

Imbricated:

overlapping, as tiles overlie each other on the roof of a house.

Incumbent:

lying upon any thing.

Indehiscent:

not opening when ripe.

Induplicate:

doubled inwards.

Indusium:

the membrane that overlies the sori of ferns.

Inferior:

is said of a calyx when it does not adhere to the ovary; is said of an ovary when it does adhere to the calyx.

Inflorescence:

the collection of flowers upon a plant.

Infundibuliform:

shaped like a funnel.

Innate:

growing upon any thing by one end.

Innovations:

the young shoots of mosses.

Intercellular:

that which lies between the cells or elementary bladders of plants.

Internode:

the space between two nodes.

Interrupted:

when variations in continuity, size, or development alternately occur in parts which are sometimes uniform; as when pinnated leaves have the alternate leaflets much the smallest, and when dense spikes are here and there broken by the extension of internodes.

Involucre:

a collection of bracts placed in a whorl on the outside a calyx or flower-head.

Involute:

rolled inwards.

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L

Labellum:

one segment of a. corolla, which is lower than the others, and often pendulous.

Labiate:

divided into an upper and a lower lip, as the corolla of dead nettle.

Lacunose:

having numerous large deep depressions or excavations on its surface.

Lamina:

the blade of a leaf.

Lanceolate:

shaped like a lance-head; that is, oval, tapering to both extremities.

lateral:

originating from the side of any thing.

Latex:

the vital fluid of vegetation.

Lax:

not compact or dense.

Leaflet:

a division of a compound leaf.

Legume:

a kind of fruit like the pod of a pea.

Lenticular:

small, depressed, and doubly convex.

Lepidote:

covered with a sort of scurfiness.

Leprous:

the same.

Liber:

the newly-formed inner bark of Exogens.

Ligula:

a membranous expansion from the top of the petiole in grasses.

Limb:

the blade or expanded part of a petal.

Linear:

very narrow, with the two sides nearly parallel.

Lip:

see Labellum.

Loculicidal:

when the carpels of a compound fruit dehisce in such a way that the cells are broken through at their back.

Locusta:

the spikelet, or collection of florets of a grass.

Lomentum:

a legume which is interrupted between the seeds, so as to separate into numerous tranverse portions.

Lunate:

formed like a crescent.

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M

Manicate:

when hairs are interwoven into a mass that can be easily separated from the surface.

Marginal:

of or belonging to the edge of any thing.

Medullary:

of or belonging to the pith.

Micropyle:

a small passage through the seed, called the foramen when speaking of the ovule. See Foramen.

Mitriform:

conical, hollow, open at the base, and either entire there or irregularly cut.

Monadelphous:

with the stamens united into one parcel.

Monandrous:

with one stamen only.

Moniliform:

shaped like a necklace.

Monopetalous:

with several petals united into one body by their edges.

Mucronate:

tipped by a hard point.

Multifid:

divided into many shallow lobes.

Multipartite:

divided into many deep lobes.

Muricated:

covered with short, broad, sharp-pointed tubercles.

Muriform:

resembling the bricks in the wall of a house.

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N

Navicular:

shaped like a very small boat.

Nectary:

any organ that secretes honey.

Nerves:

the stronger veins of a leaf.

Node:

the part of a stem from which a normal leaf-bud arises.

Normal:

according to general rules.

Nucleus:

the central part of an ovule, or a seed.

Nucule:

a small hard seed-like pericarp.

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O

Oblique:

larger on one side than on the other.

Ochrea:

two stipules united round the stem into a kind of sheath.

Octandrous:

having eight stamens.

Operculum:

the lid of the theca of a moss.

Ovary:

the hollow part of a pistil containing the ovules.

Ovate:

having the figure of an egg.

Ovule:

SL rudimentary seed.

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P

Palate:

the lower surface of the throat of a labiate corolla.

Palea:

either the inner bracts of the inflorescence of a grass, or the bracts upon the receptacle of the flower-head of a Composita.

Paleaceous:

covered with paleae.

Palmate:

the same as digitate, only the divisions more shallow and broader.

Panduriform:

oblong, narrowing towards the base: :: and contracted below the middle.

Panicle:

a compound raceme; a loose kind of inflorescence.

Papilionaceous:

a flower consisting of standard, wings, and keel, like that of a pea.

Pappus:

the calyx of a Composita, as of dandelion.

Parenchyma:

the pulp that connects the veins of leaves.

Parietal:

growing from the lining of anything.

Pectinate:

divided into long, close, narrow teeth like a comb.

Pedate:

palmate, with the lateral segments lengthened and lobed.

Pedicel:

one of a great many peduncles.

Peduncle:

a flower-stalk.

Peltate:

attached within the margin.

Pentandrous:

having five stamens.

Perfoliate:

surrounding a stem by the base, which grows together where the margins touch.

Perianth:

a collection of floral envelopes, among which the calyx cannot be distinguished from the corolla, though both are present.

Pericarp:

the shell of a fruit of any kind.

Perichaetium:

the leaves at the base of the stalk of the fruit of a moss.

Perigone:

same as Perianth.

Perigynous:

growing from the sides of a calyx.

Perisperm:

same as Albumen.

Peristome:

a curious set of processes surrounding the orifice of the theca of a moss.

Peronate:

laid thickly over with a woolly substance ending in a sort of meal.

Personate:

labiate, with the palate of the lower lip pressing against the upper lip.

Petal:

one of the parts of a corolla.

Petaloid:

resembling a petal in colour and texture.

Petiole:

the stalk of a leaf.

Petiolar:

of or belonging to the petiole.

Phyllodium:

a petiole transformed into a flat leaf-like body.

Pileus:

the cap of a mushroom.

Pilose:

covered with short fine hairs.

Pinnate:

divided into a number of pairs of leaflets; bipinnate, each leaflet is also pinnate; tripinnate, each secondary leaflet pinnated also.

Pinnatifid:

divided in a pinnated manner nearly down to the midrib.

Pistil:

the combination of ovary, style, and stigma.

Pith:

the central column of cellular tissue in an Exogen.

Placenta:

the part of the ovary to which the ovules are attached.

Plane:

quite flat.

Plumule:

the rudiment of a stem in the embryo.

Pollen:

the powder contained in an anther.

Pollen-tubes:

the membranous tubes emitted by pollen after they fall on the stigma.

Polyadelphous:

when the stamens are combined into more than two parcels.

Polyandrous:

when there are more than 20 hypogynous stamens.

Polypetalous:

when the petals are all distinct.

Pome:

a fruit like that of the apple, pear, &c.

Praefloration:

same as AEstivation.

Prickle:

same as Aculeus.

Primine:

the external integument of the ovule.

Pseudobulb:

the solid above-ground tuber of some Orchideae.

Pubescent:

covered with very fine soft down.

Pulverulent:

covered with a powdery appearance.

Putamen:

same as Endocarp.

Pyriform:

shaped like a pear.

A - B - C - D - E - F - G - H - I - L - M - N - O - P - Q - R - S - T - U - V

Q

Quartine:

the innermost integument but one of the ovule.

Quinate:

combined in fives.

Quintine:

the innermost integument of the ovule.

R

Raceme:

an inflorescence like that of the currant.

Rachis:

the axis of inflorescence.

Radical:

arising from the root.

Radicle:

the rudimentary root in the embryo.

Ramenta:

soft, ragged, chaff-like hairs growing upon the petiole of ferns.

Raphe:

the line of communication between the hilum and chalaza.

Raphides:

acicular or other crystals scattered among vegetable tissue.

Reniform:

kidney-shaped.

Resupinate:

inverted, so that the part which is naturally lowermost becomes uppermost.

Reticulated:

traversed by veins having the appearance of network.

Retuse:

blunt, and turned inwards more than obtuse.

Rhizoma:

a creeping stem like that of Iris.

Ringent:

same as Personate.

Root-stock:

same as Rhizoma.

Rostrate:

furnished with a sort of beak.

Rosulate:

having the leaves arranged in little rose-like clusters.

Ruminated:

pierced by numerous perforations full of chaffy matter like a nutmeg.

Runner:

the prostrate stem of such plants as the strawberry.

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S

Sagittate:

resembling the head of an ancient arrow.

Samara:

a kind of one-seeded indehiscent pericarp, with a wing at one end.

Sapwood:

the newly-formed wood, which has not been hardened by the deposit of secreted matter.

Sarcocarp:

the intermediate fleshy layer between the epicarp and endocarp.

Scale:

an abortive leaf.

Scape:

the flowering-stem of a plant.

Scarious:

dry, thin, and shrivelled.

Scrobiculate:

irregularly pitted.

Scutellum:

the fructifying space upon the thallus of a lichen.

Secund:

arranged or turned to one side.

Secundine:

the second integument of the ovule.

Sepals:

the leaves of the calyx.

Septa:

same as Dissepiment.

Septicidal:

when the dissepiments of a fruit are divided into two plates at the period of dehiscence.

Septifragal:

when the dissepiments of a fruit are broken through their middle by the separation of the back of the carpels from the centre.

Sericeous:

silky.

Serrate:

toothed like the edge of a saw.

Sessile:

seated close upon any thing, without a stalk.

Setose:

covered with setae or bristles.

Shield:

the fructification of lichens.

Sigmoid:

bent like the letter 8.

Silicle:

a short two-valved pod, such as is found in garden cress.

Silique:

the same but longer, as in the cabbage.

Sinuate:

turning in and out in an irregular manner.

Sori:

the fructification of ferns.

Spadiceous:

resembling a spadix, or bearing that kind of inflorescence.

Spadix:

the inflorescence of an arum; an axis closely covered with sessile flowers, and enclosed in a spathe.

Spathaceous:

enclosed within a spathe, or bearing that kind of bract.

Spathe:

a large coloured bract which encloses a spadix.

Spatulate:

shaped like a druggist's spatula; that is, long, narrow, and broadest at the point.

Spike:

an inflorescence in which the flowers are sessile upon their axis.

Spikelet:

one of a great many small spikes collected in a mass, as in grasses.

Spine:

a stiff, sharp-pointed, leafless branch.

Spongiole:

or Spongelet, the tender, growing tip of the root.

Spore:

or Sporule, the reproductive body of flowerless plants, analogous to the seed of flowering plants.

Squarrose:

composed of parts which diverge at right angles, and are irregular in size and direction.

Stamen:

the fertilizing organ of a flower, consisting of filament and anther.

Standard:

the upper single petal of a papilionaceous flower.

Stellate:

arranged in the form of a star.

Stigma:

the upper end of the style, on which the pollen falls.

Stipe:

the stalk that bears the head of a mushroom; also the stalk of the leaf of a fern; also the stalk of any thing, except of a leaf or a flower.

Stipulate:

furnished with stipules; exstipulate, having no stipules.

Stipule:

the scale at the base of some leaf-stalks.

Stomate:

a minute hole in a leaf, through which respiration is supposed to be carried on; a breathing pore.

Strigose:

covered with stiff unequal hairs.

Stropkiolate:

having little fungous excrescences surrounding the hilum.

Stupose:

having a tuft of hairs in the middle or at the end.

Style:

the stalk of the stigma.

Subulate:

awl-shaped.

Syncarpous:

having the carpels consolidated.

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T

Terete:

taper.

Ternate:

united in threes.

Testa:

the skin of the seed.

Tetradynamous:

having six stamens in four parcels; two of which consist of two stamens, and two of one each.

Tetrandrous:

having four stamens.

Thallus:

the leafy part of a lichen; the union of stem and leaf in those and some other tribes of imperfect plants.

Theca:

the case which contains the sporules of flowerless plants.

Tomentose:

covered with short close down.

Toothed:

the same as Dentate.

Torulose:

alternately contracted and distended.

Torus:

the growing point of a flower, on which the carpels are placed.

Triandrous:

having three stamens.

Trifarious:

arranged in three rows.

Trifid:

divided into three lobes.

Trifoliolate:

having three leaflets.

Tripartite:

divided into three deep divisions.

Tripinnate:

when each leaflet of a pinnated leaf is pinnate; and the leaflets of the latter are pinnate also.

Triternate:

when each leaflet of a ternate leaf is ternate, and the leaflets of the latter are ternate also.

Truncate:

abruptly Cut off.

Tube:

the part of a flower where the bases of the sepals, petals, or stamens are united.

Tuber:

a deformed, fleshy kind of underground stem.

Turbinate:

shaped like a spinning top.

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U

Umbel:

an inflorescence whose branches all radiate from one common point.

Umbilicate:

having a depression in the middle.

Umbonate:

having a boss or elevated point in the middle.

Undulated:

Wavy.

Unguiculate:

furnished with a claw, or short stalk.

Urceolate:

shaped like a pitcher.

Utricle:

a small bladder.

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V

Vagina:

the sheath formed by the convolution of a flat petiole round a stem.

Valve:

one of the parts into which any dehiscent body divides.

Vascular:

containing vessels; that is, spiral vessels or ducts.

Ventricose:

inflated.

Vernation:

the manner in which the young leaves are arranged in their leaf-bud.

Verrucose:

covered with warts.

Versatile:

swinging lightly upon a sort of pivot.

Verticellate:

arranged in a whorl.

Vexillum:

same as Standard.

Villous:

covered with long, soft, shaggy hair.

Virgate:

having long, slender, rodlike shoots.

Vitellus:

a fleshy bag interposed between the embryo and albumen in some seeds.

Vittate:

as distinguished from fasciate or banded.

W

Whorl:

an arrangement of more leaves than two around a common centre upon the same plane.

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