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b:botany [2018/03/30 02:05] (current)
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 +~~NOTOC~~ ​
 +<< [[contents:​index| Dictionary Index]] << [[contents:​b|Definitions under B]]
 +
 +----
 +
 +====== Botany ======
 +
 +The following is a list of the Technical Terms most commonly employed in Botany:
 +
 +[[botany#​A|A]] - [[botany#​B|B]] - [[botany#​C|C]] - [[botany#​D|D]] - [[botany#​E|E]] - [[botany#​F|F]] - [[botany#​G|G]] - [[botany#​H|H]] - [[botany#​I|I]] - [[botany#​L|L]] - [[botany#​M|M]] - [[botany#​N|N]] - [[botany#​O|O]] - [[botany#​P|P]] - [[botany#​Q|Q]] - [[botany#​R|R]] - [[botany#​S|S]] - [[botany#​T|T]] - [[botany#​U|U]] - [[botany#​V|V]] ​
 +
 +===== A =====
 +
 +  ?? Abnormal: :: contrary to general rules. !!
 +  ?? Accumbent: :: lying against anything, in distinction to lying upon; as the cotyledons of some cruciferous plants. !!
 +  ?? Acerose: :: stiff and slender and sharp-pointed,​ as the leaves of a pine-tree. !!
 +  ?? Achenium: :: a small, hard, one-seeded fruit, resembling a seed. !!
 +  ?? Aciculate: :: needle-shaped. !!
 +  ?? Acinaciform:​ :: scymitar-shaped. !!
 +  ?? Acinus: :: a bunch of succulent berries, as of grapes. !!
 +  ?? Acrogen: :: a plant which grows at its end only, without increasing in diameter, as ferns, and all flowerless plants. !!
 +  ?? Aculeate: :: covered with prickles. !!
 +  ?? Aculeus: :: a prickle. !!
 +  ?? Acuminate: :: tapering to the point, but flat. !!
 +  ?? Adnate: :: growing to any thing by the whole length. !!
 +  ?? Adventitious:​ :: appearing accidentally. !!
 +  ?? AEstivation:​ :: the arrangement of the parts of the flower before they expand. !!
 +  ?? Alabastrus: :: a flower-bud. !!
 +  ?? Albumen: :: a substance interposed in some seeds between the embryo and the seed coats. !!
 +  ?? Alburnum: :: the young wood; sap-wood. !!
 +  ?? Amentum: :: a catkin; the male inflorescence of the hazel, &c. !!
 +  ?? Amplexicaul:​ :: clasping a stem. !!
 +  ?? Anastomosing:​ :: the growing together of two parts which meet from different directions. !!
 +  ?? -androus: :: a Greek termination expressive of the male sex. !!
 +  ?? Anfractuous:​ :: doubled abruptly in several different directions. !!
 +  ?? Angiocarpous:​ :: having seeds enclosed in a pericarp. !!
 +  ?? Annotinous: :: a year old. !!
 +  ?? Anther: :: the case containing pollen. !!
 +  ?? Apetalous: :: having no petals. !!
 +  ?? Apiculate: :: abruptly pointed. !!
 +  ?? Apocarpous: :: where the carpels are distinct from each other. !!
 +  ?? Apophysis: :: the enlarged base of the theca of some mosses. !!
 +  ?? Apothecium: :: the shield, or mass of reproductive matter of a lichen. !!
 +  ?? Appendiculate:​ :: having some kind of appendages. !!
 +  ?? Arachnoid: :: resembling a spider'​s web. !!
 +  ?? Areolate: :: divided into little spaces. !!
 +  ?? Aril :: a peculiar wrapper of some seeds, as the mace of the nutmeg. !!
 +  ?? Arista: :: the beard or awn of grasses. !!
 +  ?? Asci :: the cases in which the spores of lichens are enclosed. !!
 +  ?? Ascidium: :: a hollow leaf looking like a water vessel; as the pitcher of Nepenthes. !!
 +  ?? Attenuated: :: gradually tapering to a point without becoming flat. !!
 +  ?? Auriculate: :: having two lobes (like ears) at the base. 
 +  ?? Awn: :: see Arista. ​
 +  ?? Axil: :: the acute angle formed by the junction of the leaf, &amp;c. to its axis. !!
 +  ?? Axillary: :: growing in an axil. 
 +  ?? Axis: :: the root and stem either taken together or separately. !!
 +
 +[[botany#​A|A]] - [[botany#​B|B]] - [[botany#​C|C]] - [[botany#​D|D]] - [[botany#​E|E]] - [[botany#​F|F]] - [[botany#​G|G]] - [[botany#​H|H]] - [[botany#​I|I]] - [[botany#​L|L]] - [[botany#​M|M]] - [[botany#​N|N]] - [[botany#​O|O]] - [[botany#​P|P]] - [[botany#​Q|Q]] - [[botany#​R|R]] - [[botany#​S|S]] - [[botany#​T|T]] - [[botany#​U|U]] - [[botany#​V|V]] ​
 +
 +===== B =====
 +
 +  ?? Baccate: :: fruit covered with soft flesh. !!
 +  ?? Barbate: :: covered with long hairs resembling a beard. !!
 +  ?? Beard: :: a tuft of long hairs. !!
 +  ?? Biconjugate:​ :: in two pairs, placed .side by side. !!
 +  ?? Bidentate: :: having two teeth. !!
 +  ?? Bifarious: :: arranged in two rows. !!
 +  ?? Bifid: :: divided into two shallow lobes. !!
 +  ?? Bifoliate: :: having two leaflets. !!
 +  ?? Bifurcate: :: twice forked. !!
 +  ?? Bijugous: :: in two pairs, placed end to end. !!
 +  ?? Binate: :: growing in pairs. !!
 +  ?? Bipartite: :: divided into two deep lobes. !!
 +  ?? Bipinnate: :: twice pinnate. !!
 +  ?? Biserrate: :: twice serrate. !!
 +  ?? Brachiate: :: when branches stand nearly at right angles to the stem from which they proceed. !!
 +  ?? Bract: :: the leaf or leaflet from the axil of which a flower grows. !!
 +  ?? Bulb: :: a scaly, underground bud. !!
 +  ?? Bulbotuber: :: a short, roundish, underground stem resembling a bulb. !!
 +
 +[[botany#​A|A]] - [[botany#​B|B]] - [[botany#​C|C]] - [[botany#​D|D]] - [[botany#​E|E]] - [[botany#​F|F]] - [[botany#​G|G]] - [[botany#​H|H]] - [[botany#​I|I]] - [[botany#​L|L]] - [[botany#​M|M]] - [[botany#​N|N]] - [[botany#​O|O]] - [[botany#​P|P]] - [[botany#​Q|Q]] - [[botany#​R|R]] - [[botany#​S|S]] - [[botany#​T|T]] - [[botany#​U|U]] - [[botany#​V|V]] ​
 +
 +
 +===== C =====
 +
 +  ?? Caducous: :: falling off sooner or later. !!
 +  ?? Caesious: :: of a bluish grey colour. !!
 +  ?? Caespitose: :: growing in tufts. !!
 +  ?? Calcar: :: a spur or horn; as in the Nasturtium. !!
 +  ?? Calcarate: :: having a spur or horn. !!
 +  ?? Calyculate: :: having a whorl of bracts on the outside of a calyx, or of an involucre. !!
 +  ?? Calyptra: :: the hood of a moss. !!
 +  ?? Calyx: :: the external envelope of a flower. !!
 +  ?? Cambium: :: a viscid secretion formed in the spring between the bark and wood of Exogens. !!
 +  ?? Campanulate:​ :: bell-shaped. !!
 +  ?? Canaliculate:​ :: channelled. !!
 +  ?? Cancellate: :: a leaf which has veins without connecting parenchyma. !!
 +  ?? Capitate: :: growing in a head. !!
 +  ?? Capitulum: :: a collection of flowers in a head. !!
 +  ?? Capsule: :: any dry many-seeded fruit. !!
 +  ?? Carinate: :: having a kind of keel. !!
 +  ?? Carnose: :: fleshy. !!
 +  ?? Carpel: :: one of the parts of a compound pistil; a single leaf rolled up into one of the integers of a pistil. !!
 +  ?? Carunculate:​ :: a seed having fungous excrescences growing near its hilum. !!
 +  ?? Caryopsis: :: a dry one-seeded fruit resembling a seed, but with no distinction between the seed coat and pericarp. !!
 +  ?? Caudate: :: prolonged into a sort of tail. !!
 +  ?? Cauline: :: of or belonging to the stem. !!
 +  ??Cernuous: :: drooping. !!
 +  ?? Chalaza: :: a spot on a seed indicating the place where the nucleus is united to the seminal integuments. !!
 +  ?? Ciliated: :: fringed with hairs like an eyelash. !!
 +  ?? Cinereous: :: ash-coloured. !!
 +  ?? Circinate: :: rolled inwards from the point to the base. !!
 +  ?? Circumscissile:​ :: dividing into two parts by a spontaneous transverse separation. !!
 +  ?? Cirrhous: :: terminating in a tendril. !!
 +  ?? Clavate: :: club-shaped. !!
 +  ?? Clam: :: the stalk of a petal. !!
 +  ?? Clypeate: :: resembling a round buckler. !!
 +  ?? Cochleate: :: resembling the bowl of a spoon. !!
 +  ?? Collum: :: the point where the stem and root are combined. !!
 +  ?? Columella: :: a central part of the fruit of a moss, round which the spores are deposited. !!
 +  ?? Column: :: the combination of stamens and style in Orchideous and other plants. !!
 +  ?? Comose: :: having hairs at one or both ends, if speaking of seeds; being terminated by coloured empty bracts, if applied to inflorescences. !!
 +  ?? Conduplicate:​ :: doubled together. !!
 +  ?? Confluent: :: growing together so that the line of junction is lost to the sight. !!
 +  ?? Conjugate: :: growing in pairs. !!
 +  ?? Connate: :: growing together so that the line of junction remains perceptible. !!
 +  ?? Connective: :: the fleshy part that combines the two lobes of an anther. !!
 +  ?? Connivent: :: converging, as the anther of a potato blossom. !!
 +  ?? Conoidal: :: approaching a conical form. !!
 +  ?? Continuous: :: proceeding &amp;om something else without apparent interruption. !!
 +  ?? Contorted: :: twisted in such a way that all the parts have a similar direction, as the segments of the flower of an Oleander. !!
 +  ?? Convolute: :: rolled together. !!
 +  ?? Corculum: :: the rudimentary axis which connects the cotyledons of the embryo. !!
 +  ?? Cordate: :: heart-shaped. !!
 +  ?? Coriaceous: :: of a leathery texture. !!
 +  ?? Cormus: :: a solid, roundish, underground stem, as in Crocus. !!
 +  ?? Corneous: :: of a horny texture. !!
 +  ?? Corniculate:​ :: shaped like a slender horn. !!
 +  ?? Corolla: :: the second of the two envelopes that surround the stamens and pistil. !!
 +  ?? Corona: :: a combination of fertile and barren stamens into a disk, as in Stapelia. !!
 +  ?? Corymbose: :: when the branches surrounding a common axis are shortest at the top and longest at the bottom, so as to form a level-topped whole. !!
 +  ?? Costa: :: the midrib of a leaf. !!
 +  ?? Cotyledons: :: the leaves of the embryo. !!
 +  ?? Crateriform:​ :: shaped like a goblet. !!
 +  ?? Crenelled or Crenated: :: having rounded notches at the edges. !!
 +  ?? Crested: :: having some, unusual and striking appendage arising from the middle. !!
 +  ?? Cruciate: :: when four parts are so arranged as  to resemble the arms of a Maltese cross. !!
 +  ?? Cucullate: :: hooded, rolled inwards so as to conceal any thing lying within. !!
 +  ?? Culm: :: the straw of grasses. !!
 +  ?? Cuneate: :: wedge-shaped. !!
 +  ?? Cupule: :: the cup of the acorn, the husk of the filbert chestnut, &c.; a. peculiar combination of bracts. !!
 +  ?? Cuspidate: :: abruptly rounded off with a. projecting point in the middle. !!
 +  ?? Cuticle: :: the external skin. !!
 +  ?? Cyathiform: :: cup-shaped, more contracted at the orifice than crateriform. !!
 +  ?? Cymbiform: :: having the form of a boat. !!
 +  ?? Cyme: :: an inflorescence having a corymbose form, but consisting of repeatedly-branched divisions. !!
 +  ?? Cymose: :: resembling a cyme in appearance. !!
 +
 +[[botany#​A|A]] - [[botany#​B|B]] - [[botany#​C|C]] - [[botany#​D|D]] - [[botany#​E|E]] - [[botany#​F|F]] - [[botany#​G|G]] - [[botany#​H|H]] - [[botany#​I|I]] - [[botany#​L|L]] - [[botany#​M|M]] - [[botany#​N|N]] - [[botany#​O|O]] - [[botany#​P|P]] - [[botany#​Q|Q]] - [[botany#​R|R]] - [[botany#​S|S]] - [[botany#​T|T]] - [[botany#​U|U]] - [[botany#​V|V]] ​
 +
 +===== D =====
 +
 +  ?? Decandrous: :: having ten stamens. !!
 +  ?? Deciduous: :: falling off. !!
 +  ?? Declinate: :: curved downwards.
 +  ?? Decumbent: :: lying prostrate, but rising again. !!
 +  ?? Decurrent: :: produced downwards, as the base of a leaf down the stem. !!
 +  ?? Decussate: :: crossing at right angles. !!
 +  ?? Dehiscence: :: the act of opening of anther or fruit. !!
 +  ?? Deltoid: :: having the form of a triangle or Greek A. !!
 +  ?? Dendroidal: :: resembling a small tree. !!
 +  ?? Dentate: :: with sharp-pointed notches and intermediate curves instead of re-entering angles. !!
 +  ?? Depauperated:​ :: imperfectly developed; looking as if ill-formed from want of sufficient nutriment. !!
 +  ?? Depressed: :: flattened from point to base. !!
 +  ?? Diadelphous:​ :: having the stamens in two parcels. !!
 +  ?? Diandrous: :: having two stamens. !!
 +  ?? Dichotomous:​ :: repeatedly divided into two branches. !!
 +  ?? Dicotyledonous:​ :: having two cotyledons. !!
 +  ?? Didymous: :: growing in pairs, or twins; only applied to solids and not to flat surfaces. !!
 +  ?? Didynamous: :: having two pairs of stamens of unequal length. !!
 +  ?? Digitate: :: fingered, diverging from a common centre, as the fingers from the palm. !!
 +  ?? Dimidiate: :: half-formed,​ or halved, or split into two halves. !!
 +  ?? Dioecious: :: having stamens on one plant and pistils on another. !!
 +  ?? Dipterous: :: having two wings. !!
 +  ?? Discoidal: :: with the central part of a flat body differently coloured or marked from the margin. !!
 +  ?? Disk: :: a fleshy circle Interposed between the stamens and pistils. !!
 +  ?? Dissepiments:​ :: the vertical partitions of a compound fruit. !!
 +  ?? Distichous: :: arranged in two rows. !!
 +  ?? Divaricating:​ :: diverging at an obtuse angle. !!
 +  ?? Dodecandrous:​ :: having 12 stamens. !!
 +  ?? Dolabriform:​ :: hatchet-shaped. !!
 +  ?? Drupe: :: such a fruit as the peach, consisting of a stem surrounded by flesh or fibrous matter. !!
 +  ?? Ducts: :: spiral vessels that will not unroll. !!
 +  ?? Dumose: :: having a compact bushy form. !!
 +  ?? Duramen: :: the heart-wood of timber. !!
 +
 +[[botany#​A|A]] - [[botany#​B|B]] - [[botany#​C|C]] - [[botany#​D|D]] - [[botany#​E|E]] - [[botany#​F|F]] - [[botany#​G|G]] - [[botany#​H|H]] - [[botany#​I|I]] - [[botany#​L|L]] - [[botany#​M|M]] - [[botany#​N|N]] - [[botany#​O|O]] - [[botany#​P|P]] - [[botany#​Q|Q]] - [[botany#​R|R]] - [[botany#​S|S]] - [[botany#​T|T]] - [[botany#​U|U]] - [[botany#​V|V]] ​
 + 
 +
 +===== E =====
 +
 +  ?? Echinate: :: covered. with hard sharp points. !!
 +  ?? Elaters: :: little spirally-twisted hygrometrical threads that disperse the spores of Jungermannias. !!
 +  ?? Elementary organs: :: the minute parts of which the texture of plants is composed. !!
 +  ?? Emarginate: :: having a notch at the point. !!
 +  ?? Embryo: :: the rudimentary plant before germination commences. !!
 +  ?? Endocarp: :: the hard lining of some pericarps. !!
 +  ?? Endogen: :: a plant which increases in diameter by addition to its centre, as a palm-tree. !!
 +  ?? Enneandrous:​ :: having 9 stamens. !!
 +  ?? Ensiform: :: having the form of a straight and narrow sword blade. !!
 +  ?? Epicarp: :: the external layer of the pericarp. !!
 +  ?? Epidermis: :: the skin of a plant, in the language of some writers; the cortical integument according to others. !!
 +  ?? Epigynous: :: growing upon the top of the ovary, or seeming to do so. !!
 +  ?? Equitant: :: when leaves are so arranged that the base of each is enclosed within the opposite base of that which is next below it; as in Iris. !!
 +  ?? Estivation: :: see AEstivation. !!
 +  ?? Exogen: :: a plant which increases in diameter by the addition of new wood to the outside of the old wood; as an oak-tree. !!
 +
 +[[botany#​A|A]] - [[botany#​B|B]] - [[botany#​C|C]] - [[botany#​D|D]] - [[botany#​E|E]] - [[botany#​F|F]] - [[botany#​G|G]] - [[botany#​H|H]] - [[botany#​I|I]] - [[botany#​L|L]] - [[botany#​M|M]] - [[botany#​N|N]] - [[botany#​O|O]] - [[botany#​P|P]] - [[botany#​Q|Q]] - [[botany#​R|R]] - [[botany#​S|S]] - [[botany#​T|T]] - [[botany#​U|U]] - [[botany#​V|V]] ​
 +
 +===== F =====
 +
 +  ?? Farinaceous:​ :: mealy. !!
 +  ?? Fasciated: :: banded. !!
 +  ?? Fasciculated:​ :: collected in clusters. !!
 +  ?? Fastigiate: :: when the branches of any plant are pressed close to the main stem, as in the Lombardy poplar. !!
 +  ?? Filament: :: the stalk of the anther. !!
 +  ?? Filiform: :: slender and round like a thread. !!
 +  ?? Fistular: :: tubular but closed at each end; as the leaf of an onion. !!
 +  ?? Flabelliform:​ :: fan-shaped. !!
 +  ?? Flagelliform:​ :: resembling the thong of a whip. !!
 +  ?? Flexuose: :: wavy. !!
 +  ?? Floccose: :: covered with little irregular patches of woolliness. !!
 +  ?? Floret: :: a little flower. !!
 +  ?? Floscule: :: ditto. !!
 +  ?? Foliaceous: :: having the colour and texture of a common green leaf. !!
 +  ?? Foliation: :: the arrangement of young leaves within the leaf-bud. !!
 +  ?? Follicle: :: a simple fruit opening by its ventral suture only. !!
 +  ?? Foramen: :: the passage through the integuments of an ovule by which impregnating matter is introduced into the nucleus. !!
 +  ?? Fovilla: :: the fertilizing principle of pollen. !!
 +  ?? Frond: :: the leaf of a fern or of a palm. !!
 +  ?? Fruit: :: the full-grown ripened pistil. !!
 +  ?? Fugacious: :: lasting but a short time. !!
 +  ?? Fungoid: :: resembling a fungus; that is, irregular in form and fleshy in texture. !!
 +  ?? Funiculus: :: the stalk by which some seeds are attached to the placenta. !!
 +  ?? Fusiform: :: spindle-shaped,​ thickest in the middle, and tapering to each end. !!
 +
 +[[botany#​A|A]] - [[botany#​B|B]] - [[botany#​C|C]] - [[botany#​D|D]] - [[botany#​E|E]] - [[botany#​F|F]] - [[botany#​G|G]] - [[botany#​H|H]] - [[botany#​I|I]] - [[botany#​L|L]] - [[botany#​M|M]] - [[botany#​N|N]] - [[botany#​O|O]] - [[botany#​P|P]] - [[botany#​Q|Q]] - [[botany#​R|R]] - [[botany#​S|S]] - [[botany#​T|T]] - [[botany#​U|U]] - [[botany#​V|V]] ​
 +
 +===== G =====
 +
 +  ?? Galbulus: :: a small cone whose scales are all consolidated into a fleshy ball, as in Juniper. !!
 +  ?? Galea: :: the upper lip of a labiate flower. !!
 +  ?? Geniculate: :: knee-jointed,​ when a stem bends suddenly in its middle. !!
 +  ?? Gibbous: :: prominent, projecting. !!
 +  ?? Glabrous: :: having no hairs. !!
 +  ?? Gladiate: :: the same as ensiform, but broader and shorter. !!
 +  ?? Gland: :: 1. the fruit of the oak, the hazel, &c. !! :: 2. an elevation of the cuticle which usually secretes either acrid or resinous matter. !!
 +  ?? Glandular: :: covered with glands of the second kind. !!
 +  ?? Glaucous: :: covered with bloom like a plum. !!
 +  ?? Glochidate: :: covered with hairs which are rigid and hooked at their point. !!
 +  ?? Glume: :: one of the bracts of grasses. !!
 +  ?? Gymnospermous:​ :: having seeds which ripen without being enclosed in a pericarp. !!
 +  ?? Gynobase: :: an elevated part of the growing point of a flower-bud, rising between the carpels and throwing them into an oblique position. !!
 +  ?? Gyrate: :: see Circinate. Also, surrounded by an elastic ring, as the theca of ferns. !!
 +
 +[[botany#​A|A]] - [[botany#​B|B]] - [[botany#​C|C]] - [[botany#​D|D]] - [[botany#​E|E]] - [[botany#​F|F]] - [[botany#​G|G]] - [[botany#​H|H]] - [[botany#​I|I]] - [[botany#​L|L]] - [[botany#​M|M]] - [[botany#​N|N]] - [[botany#​O|O]] - [[botany#​P|P]] - [[botany#​Q|Q]] - [[botany#​R|R]] - [[botany#​S|S]] - [[botany#​T|T]] - [[botany#​U|U]] - [[botany#​V|V]] ​
 +
 +===== H =====
 +
 +  ?? Hastate: :: having the form of a halbert-head;​ that is, with a lance-shaped centre crossed at the base by two lobes of a similar form standing at right angles with the centre. !!
 +  ?? Helmet: :: the hooded upper lip of some flowers. !!
 +  ?? Heptandrous:​ :: having 7 stamens. !!
 +  ?? Hexandrous: :: having 6 stamens. !!
 +  ?? Hilum: :: the scar left upon a seed when it is separated from the placenta. !!
 +  ?? Hirsute: :: covered with harsh long hairs. !!
 +  ?? Hymenium: :: the gills of a mushroom; that part in Fungi where the spores are placed. !!
 +  ?? Hypocrateriform:​ :: salver-shaped;​ having a cylindrical tube and a flat border spreading away from it. !!
 +  ?? Hypogynous: :: arising from immediately below the pistil. !!
 +
 +[[botany#​A|A]] - [[botany#​B|B]] - [[botany#​C|C]] - [[botany#​D|D]] - [[botany#​E|E]] - [[botany#​F|F]] - [[botany#​G|G]] - [[botany#​H|H]] - [[botany#​I|I]] - [[botany#​L|L]] - [[botany#​M|M]] - [[botany#​N|N]] - [[botany#​O|O]] - [[botany#​P|P]] - [[botany#​Q|Q]] - [[botany#​R|R]] - [[botany#​S|S]] - [[botany#​T|T]] - [[botany#​U|U]] - [[botany#​V|V]] ​
 +
 +===== I =====
 +
 +  ?? Icosandrous:​ :: having 20 or more perigynous stamens. !!
 +  ?? Imbricated: :: overlapping,​ as tiles overlie each other on the roof of a house. !!
 +  ?? Incumbent: :: lying upon any thing. !!
 +  ?? Indehiscent:​ :: not opening when ripe. !!
 +  ?? Induplicate:​ :: doubled inwards. !!
 +  ?? Indusium: :: the membrane that overlies the sori of ferns. !!
 +  ?? Inferior: :: is said of a calyx when it does not adhere to the ovary; is said of an ovary when it does adhere to the calyx. !!
 +  ?? Inflorescence:​ :: the collection of flowers upon a plant. !!
 +  ?? Infundibuliform:​ :: shaped like a funnel. !!
 +  ?? Innate: :: growing upon any thing by one end. !!
 +  ?? Innovations:​ :: the young shoots of mosses. !!
 +  ?? Intercellular:​ :: that which lies between the cells or elementary bladders of plants. !!
 +  ?? Internode: :: the space between two nodes. !!
 +  ?? Interrupted:​ ::  when variations in continuity, size, or development alternately occur in parts which are sometimes uniform; as when pinnated leaves have the alternate leaflets much the smallest, and when dense spikes are here and there broken by the extension of internodes. !!
 +  ?? Involucre: :: a collection of bracts placed in a whorl on the outside a calyx or flower-head. !!
 +  ?? Involute: :: rolled inwards. !!
 +
 +[[botany#​A|A]] - [[botany#​B|B]] - [[botany#​C|C]] - [[botany#​D|D]] - [[botany#​E|E]] - [[botany#​F|F]] - [[botany#​G|G]] - [[botany#​H|H]] - [[botany#​I|I]] - [[botany#​L|L]] - [[botany#​M|M]] - [[botany#​N|N]] - [[botany#​O|O]] - [[botany#​P|P]] - [[botany#​Q|Q]] - [[botany#​R|R]] - [[botany#​S|S]] - [[botany#​T|T]] - [[botany#​U|U]] - [[botany#​V|V]] ​
 +
 +===== L =====
 +
 +  ?? Labellum: :: one segment of a. corolla, which is lower than the others, and often pendulous. !!
 +  ?? Labiate: :: divided into an upper and a lower lip, as the corolla of dead nettle. !!
 +  ?? Lacunose: :: having numerous large deep depressions or excavations on its surface. !!
 +  ?? Lamina: :: the blade of a leaf. !!
 +  ?? Lanceolate: :: shaped like a lance-head; that is, oval, tapering to both extremities. !!
 +  ?? lateral: :: originating from the side of any thing. !!
 +  ?? Latex: :: the vital fluid of vegetation. !!
 +  ?? Lax: :: not compact or dense. !!
 +  ?? Leaflet: :: a division of a compound leaf. !!
 +  ?? Legume: :: a kind of fruit like the pod of a pea. !!
 +  ?? Lenticular: :: small, depressed, and doubly convex. !!
 +  ?? Lepidote: :: covered with a sort of scurfiness. !!
 +  ?? Leprous: :: the same. !!
 +  ?? Liber: :: the newly-formed inner bark of Exogens. !!
 +  ?? Ligula: :: a membranous expansion from the top of the petiole in grasses. !!
 +  ?? Limb: :: the blade or expanded part of a petal. !!
 +  ?? Linear: :: very narrow, with the two sides nearly parallel. !!
 +  ?? Lip: :: see Labellum. !!
 +  ?? Loculicidal:​ :: when the carpels of a compound fruit dehisce in such a way that the cells are broken through at their back. !!
 +  ?? Locusta: :: the spikelet, or collection of florets of a grass. !!
 +  ?? Lomentum: :: a legume which is interrupted between the seeds, so as to separate into numerous tranverse portions. !!
 +  ?? Lunate: :: formed like a crescent. !!
 +
 +[[botany#​A|A]] - [[botany#​B|B]] - [[botany#​C|C]] - [[botany#​D|D]] - [[botany#​E|E]] - [[botany#​F|F]] - [[botany#​G|G]] - [[botany#​H|H]] - [[botany#​I|I]] - [[botany#​L|L]] - [[botany#​M|M]] - [[botany#​N|N]] - [[botany#​O|O]] - [[botany#​P|P]] - [[botany#​Q|Q]] - [[botany#​R|R]] - [[botany#​S|S]] - [[botany#​T|T]] - [[botany#​U|U]] - [[botany#​V|V]] ​
 +
 +===== M =====
 +
 +  ?? Manicate: :: when hairs are interwoven into a mass that can be easily separated from the surface. !!
 +  ?? Marginal: :: of or belonging to the edge of any thing. !!
 +  ?? Medullary: :: of or belonging to the pith. !!
 +  ?? Micropyle: :: a small passage through the seed, called the foramen when speaking of the ovule. See Foramen. !!
 +  ?? Mitriform: :: conical, hollow, open at the base, and either entire there or irregularly cut. !!
 +  ?? Monadelphous:​ :: with the stamens united into one parcel. !!
 +  ?? Monandrous: :: with one stamen only. !!
 +  ?? Moniliform: :: shaped like a necklace. !!
 +  ?? Monopetalous:​ :: with several petals united into one body by their edges. !!
 +  ?? Mucronate: :: tipped by a hard point. !!
 +  ?? Multifid: :: divided into many shallow lobes. !!
 +  ?? Multipartite:​ :: divided into many deep lobes. !!
 +  ?? Muricated: :: covered with short, broad, sharp-pointed tubercles. !!
 +  ?? Muriform: :: resembling the bricks in the wall of a house. !!
 +
 +[[botany#​A|A]] - [[botany#​B|B]] - [[botany#​C|C]] - [[botany#​D|D]] - [[botany#​E|E]] - [[botany#​F|F]] - [[botany#​G|G]] - [[botany#​H|H]] - [[botany#​I|I]] - [[botany#​L|L]] - [[botany#​M|M]] - [[botany#​N|N]] - [[botany#​O|O]] - [[botany#​P|P]] - [[botany#​Q|Q]] - [[botany#​R|R]] - [[botany#​S|S]] - [[botany#​T|T]] - [[botany#​U|U]] - [[botany#​V|V]] ​
 +
 +===== N =====
 +
 +  ?? Navicular: :: shaped like a very small boat. !!
 +  ?? Nectary: :: any organ that secretes honey. !!
 +  ?? Nerves: :: the stronger veins of a leaf. !!
 +  ?? Node: :: the part of a stem from which a normal leaf-bud arises. !!
 +  ?? Normal: :: according to general rules. !!
 +  ?? Nucleus: :: the central part of an ovule, or a seed. !!
 +  ?? Nucule: :: a small hard seed-like pericarp. !!
 +
 +[[botany#​A|A]] - [[botany#​B|B]] - [[botany#​C|C]] - [[botany#​D|D]] - [[botany#​E|E]] - [[botany#​F|F]] - [[botany#​G|G]] - [[botany#​H|H]] - [[botany#​I|I]] - [[botany#​L|L]] - [[botany#​M|M]] - [[botany#​N|N]] - [[botany#​O|O]] - [[botany#​P|P]] - [[botany#​Q|Q]] - [[botany#​R|R]] - [[botany#​S|S]] - [[botany#​T|T]] - [[botany#​U|U]] - [[botany#​V|V]] ​
 +
 +===== O =====
 +
 +  ?? Oblique: :: larger on one side than on the other. !!
 +  ?? Ochrea: :: two stipules united round the stem into a kind of sheath. !!
 +  ?? Octandrous: :: having eight stamens. !!
 +  ?? Operculum: :: the lid of the theca of a moss. !!
 +  ?? Ovary: :: the hollow part of a pistil containing the ovules. !!
 +  ?? Ovate: :: having the figure of an egg. !!
 +  ?? Ovule: :: SL rudimentary seed. !!
 +
 +[[botany#​A|A]] - [[botany#​B|B]] - [[botany#​C|C]] - [[botany#​D|D]] - [[botany#​E|E]] - [[botany#​F|F]] - [[botany#​G|G]] - [[botany#​H|H]] - [[botany#​I|I]] - [[botany#​L|L]] - [[botany#​M|M]] - [[botany#​N|N]] - [[botany#​O|O]] - [[botany#​P|P]] - [[botany#​Q|Q]] - [[botany#​R|R]] - [[botany#​S|S]] - [[botany#​T|T]] - [[botany#​U|U]] - [[botany#​V|V]] ​
 +
 +===== P =====
 +
 +  ?? Palate: :: the lower surface of the throat of a labiate corolla. !!
 +  ?? Palea: :: either the inner bracts of the inflorescence of a grass, or the bracts upon the receptacle of the flower-head of a Composita. !!
 +  ?? Paleaceous: :: covered with paleae. !!
 +  ?? Palmate: :: the same as digitate, only the divisions more shallow and broader. !!
 +  ?? Panduriform:​ :: oblong, narrowing towards the base: :: and contracted below the middle. !!
 +  ?? Panicle: :: a compound raceme; a loose kind of inflorescence. !!
 +  ?? Papilionaceous:​ :: a flower consisting of standard, wings, and keel, like that of a pea. !!
 +  ?? Pappus: :: the calyx of a Composita, as of dandelion. !!
 +  ?? Parenchyma: :: the pulp that connects the veins of leaves. !!
 +  ?? Parietal: :: growing from the lining of anything. !!
 +  ?? Pectinate: :: divided into long, close, narrow teeth like a comb. !!
 +  ?? Pedate: :: palmate, with the lateral segments lengthened and lobed. !!
 +  ?? Pedicel: :: one of a great many peduncles. !!
 +  ?? Peduncle: :: a flower-stalk. !!
 +  ?? Peltate: :: attached within the margin. !!
 +  ?? Pentandrous:​ :: having five stamens. !!
 +  ?? Perfoliate: :: surrounding a stem by the base, which grows together where the margins touch. !!
 +  ?? Perianth: :: a collection of floral envelopes, among which the calyx cannot be distinguished from the corolla, though both are present. !!
 +  ?? Pericarp: :: the shell of a fruit of any kind. !!
 +  ?? Perichaetium:​ :: the leaves at the base of the stalk of the fruit of a moss. !!
 +  ?? Perigone: :: same as Perianth. !!
 +  ?? Perigynous: :: growing from the sides of a calyx. !!
 +  ?? Perisperm: :: same as Albumen. !!
 +  ?? Peristome: :: a curious set of processes surrounding the orifice of the theca of a moss. !!
 +  ?? Peronate: :: laid thickly over with a woolly substance ending in a sort of meal. !!
 +  ?? Personate: :: labiate, with the palate of the lower lip pressing against the upper lip. !!
 +  ?? Petal: :: one of the parts of a corolla. !!
 +  ?? Petaloid: :: resembling a petal in colour and texture. !!
 +  ?? Petiole: :: the stalk of a leaf. !!
 +  ?? Petiolar: :: of or belonging to the petiole. !!
 +  ?? Phyllodium: :: a petiole transformed into a flat leaf-like body. !!
 +  ?? Pileus: :: the cap of a mushroom. !!
 +  ?? Pilose: :: covered with short fine hairs.
 +  ?? Pinnate: :: divided into a number of pairs of leaflets; bipinnate, each leaflet is also pinnate; tripinnate, each secondary leaflet pinnated also. !!
 +  ?? Pinnatifid: :: divided in a pinnated manner nearly down to the midrib. !!
 +  ?? Pistil: :: the combination of ovary, style, and stigma. !!
 +  ?? Pith: :: the central column of cellular tissue in an Exogen. !!
 +  ?? Placenta: :: the part of the ovary to which the ovules are attached. !!
 +  ?? Plane: :: quite flat. !!
 +  ?? Plumule: :: the rudiment of a stem in the embryo. !!
 +  ?? Pollen: :: the powder contained in an anther. !!
 +  ?? Pollen-tubes:​ :: the membranous tubes emitted by pollen after they fall on the stigma. !!
 +  ?? Polyadelphous:​ :: when the stamens are combined into more than two parcels. !!
 +  ?? Polyandrous:​ :: when there are more than 20 hypogynous stamens. !!
 +  ?? Polypetalous:​ :: when the petals are all distinct. !!
 +  ?? Pome: :: a fruit like that of the apple, pear, &c. !!
 +  ?? Praefloration:​ :: same as AEstivation. !!
 +  ?? Prickle: :: same as Aculeus. !!
 +  ?? Primine: :: the external integument of the ovule. !!
 +  ?? Pseudobulb: :: the solid above-ground tuber of some Orchideae. !!
 +  ?? Pubescent: :: covered with very fine soft down. !!
 +  ?? Pulverulent:​ :: covered with a powdery appearance. !!
 +  ?? Putamen: :: same as Endocarp. !!
 +  ?? Pyriform: :: shaped like a pear. !!
 +
 +[[botany#​A|A]] - [[botany#​B|B]] - [[botany#​C|C]] - [[botany#​D|D]] - [[botany#​E|E]] - [[botany#​F|F]] - [[botany#​G|G]] - [[botany#​H|H]] - [[botany#​I|I]] - [[botany#​L|L]] - [[botany#​M|M]] - [[botany#​N|N]] - [[botany#​O|O]] - [[botany#​P|P]] - [[botany#​Q|Q]] - [[botany#​R|R]] - [[botany#​S|S]] - [[botany#​T|T]] - [[botany#​U|U]] - [[botany#​V|V]] ​
 +
 +===== Q =====
 +
 +  ?? Quartine: :: the innermost integument but one of the ovule. !!
 +  ?? Quinate: :: combined in fives. !!
 +  ?? Quintine: :: the innermost integument of the ovule. !!
 +
 +===== R =====
 +
 +  ?? Raceme: :: an inflorescence like that of the currant. !!
 +  ?? Rachis: :: the axis of inflorescence. !!
 +  ?? Radical: :: arising from the root. !!
 +  ?? Radicle: :: the rudimentary root in the embryo. !!
 +  ?? Ramenta: :: soft, ragged, chaff-like hairs growing upon the petiole of ferns. !!
 +  ?? Raphe: :: the line of communication between the hilum and chalaza. !!
 +  ?? Raphides: :: acicular or other crystals scattered among vegetable tissue. !!
 +  ?? Reniform: :: kidney-shaped. !!
 +  ?? Resupinate: :: inverted, so that the part which is naturally lowermost becomes uppermost. !!
 +  ?? Reticulated:​ :: traversed by veins having the appearance of network. !!
 +  ?? Retuse: :: blunt, and turned inwards more than obtuse. !!
 +  ?? Rhizoma: :: a creeping stem like that of Iris. !!
 +  ?? Ringent: :: same as Personate. !!
 +  ?? Root-stock: :: same as Rhizoma. !!
 +  ?? Rostrate: :: furnished with a sort of beak. !!
 +  ?? Rosulate: :: having the leaves arranged in little rose-like clusters. !!
 +  ?? Ruminated: :: pierced by numerous perforations full of chaffy matter like a nutmeg. !!
 +  ?? Runner: :: the prostrate stem of such plants as the strawberry. !!
 +
 +[[botany#​A|A]] - [[botany#​B|B]] - [[botany#​C|C]] - [[botany#​D|D]] - [[botany#​E|E]] - [[botany#​F|F]] - [[botany#​G|G]] - [[botany#​H|H]] - [[botany#​I|I]] - [[botany#​L|L]] - [[botany#​M|M]] - [[botany#​N|N]] - [[botany#​O|O]] - [[botany#​P|P]] - [[botany#​Q|Q]] - [[botany#​R|R]] - [[botany#​S|S]] - [[botany#​T|T]] - [[botany#​U|U]] - [[botany#​V|V]] ​
 +
 +===== S =====
 +
 +  ?? Sagittate: :: resembling the head of an ancient arrow. !!
 +  ?? Samara: :: a kind of one-seeded indehiscent pericarp, with a wing at one end. !!
 +  ?? Sapwood: :: the newly-formed wood, which has not been hardened by the deposit of secreted matter. !!
 +  ?? Sarcocarp: :: the intermediate fleshy layer between the epicarp and endocarp. !!
 +  ?? Scale: :: an abortive leaf. !!
 +  ?? Scape: :: the flowering-stem of a plant. !!
 +  ?? Scarious: :: dry, thin, and shrivelled. !!
 +  ?? Scrobiculate:​ :: irregularly pitted. !!
 +  ?? Scutellum: :: the fructifying space upon the thallus of a lichen. !!
 +  ?? Secund: :: arranged or turned to one side. !!
 +  ?? Secundine: :: the second integument of the ovule. !!
 +  ?? Sepals: :: the leaves of the calyx. !!
 +  ?? Septa: :: same as Dissepiment. !!
 +  ?? Septicidal: :: when the dissepiments of a fruit are divided into two plates at the period of dehiscence. !!
 +  ?? Septifragal:​ :: when the dissepiments of a fruit are broken through their middle by the separation of the back of the carpels from the centre. !!
 +  ?? Sericeous: :: silky. !!
 +  ?? Serrate: :: toothed like the edge of a saw. !!
 +  ?? Sessile: :: seated close upon any thing, without a stalk. !!
 +  ?? Setose: :: covered with setae or bristles. !!
 +  ?? Shield: :: the fructification of lichens. !!
 +  ?? Sigmoid: :: bent like the letter 8. !!
 +  ?? Silicle: :: a short two-valved pod, such as is found in garden cress. !!
 +  ?? Silique: :: the same but longer, as in the cabbage. !!
 +  ?? Sinuate: :: turning in and out in an irregular manner. !!
 +  ?? Sori: :: the fructification of ferns. !!
 +  ?? Spadiceous: :: resembling a spadix, or bearing that kind of inflorescence. !!
 +  ?? Spadix: :: the inflorescence of an arum; an axis closely covered with sessile flowers, and enclosed in a spathe. !!
 +  ?? Spathaceous:​ :: enclosed within a spathe, or bearing that kind of bract. !!
 +  ?? Spathe: :: a large coloured bract which encloses a spadix. !!
 +  ?? Spatulate: :: shaped like a druggist'​s spatula; that is, long, narrow, and broadest at the point. !!
 +  ?? Spike: :: an inflorescence in which the flowers are sessile upon their axis. !!
 +  ?? Spikelet: :: one of a great many small spikes collected in a mass, as in grasses. !!
 +  ?? Spine: :: a stiff, sharp-pointed,​ leafless branch. !!
 +  ?? Spongiole: :: or Spongelet, the tender, growing tip of the root. !!
 +  ?? Spore: :: or Sporule, the reproductive body of flowerless plants, analogous to the seed of flowering plants. !!
 +  ?? Squarrose: :: composed of parts which diverge at right angles, and are irregular in size and direction. !!
 +  ?? Stamen: :: the fertilizing organ of a flower, consisting of filament and anther. !!
 +  ?? Standard: :: the upper single petal of a papilionaceous flower. !!
 +  ?? Stellate: :: arranged in the form of a star. !!
 +  ?? Stigma: :: the upper end of the style, on which the pollen falls. !!
 +  ?? Stipe: :: the stalk that bears the head of a mushroom; also the stalk of the leaf of a fern; also the stalk of any thing, except of a leaf or a flower. !!
 +  ?? Stipulate: :: furnished with stipules; exstipulate,​ having no stipules. !!
 +  ?? Stipule: :: the scale at the base of some leaf-stalks. !!
 +  ?? Stomate: :: a minute hole in a leaf, through which respiration is supposed to be carried on; a breathing pore. !!
 +  ?? Strigose: :: covered with stiff unequal hairs. !!
 +  ?? Stropkiolate:​ :: having little fungous excrescences surrounding the hilum. !!
 +  ?? Stupose: :: having a tuft of hairs in the middle or at the end. !!
 +  ?? Style: :: the stalk of the stigma. !!
 +  ?? Subulate: :: awl-shaped. !!
 +  ?? Syncarpous: :: having the carpels consolidated. !!
 +
 +[[botany#​A|A]] - [[botany#​B|B]] - [[botany#​C|C]] - [[botany#​D|D]] - [[botany#​E|E]] - [[botany#​F|F]] - [[botany#​G|G]] - [[botany#​H|H]] - [[botany#​I|I]] - [[botany#​L|L]] - [[botany#​M|M]] - [[botany#​N|N]] - [[botany#​O|O]] - [[botany#​P|P]] - [[botany#​Q|Q]] - [[botany#​R|R]] - [[botany#​S|S]] - [[botany#​T|T]] - [[botany#​U|U]] - [[botany#​V|V]] ​
 +
 +===== T =====
 +
 +  ?? Terete: :: taper. !!
 +  ?? Ternate: :: united in threes. !!
 +  ?? Testa: :: the skin of the seed. !!
 +  ?? Tetradynamous:​ :: having six stamens in four parcels; two of which consist of two stamens, and two of one each. !!
 +  ?? Tetrandrous:​ :: having four stamens. !!
 +  ?? Thallus: :: the leafy part of a lichen; the union of stem and leaf in those and some other tribes of imperfect plants. !!
 +  ?? Theca: :: the case which contains the sporules of flowerless plants. !!
 +  ?? Tomentose: :: covered with short close down. !!
 +  ?? Toothed: :: the same as Dentate. !!
 +  ?? Torulose: :: alternately contracted and distended. !!
 +  ?? Torus: :: the growing point of a flower, on which the carpels are placed. !!
 +  ?? Triandrous: :: having three stamens. !!
 +  ?? Trifarious: :: arranged in three rows. !!
 +  ?? Trifid: :: divided into three lobes. !!
 +  ?? Trifoliolate:​ :: having three leaflets. !!
 +  ?? Tripartite: :: divided into three deep divisions. !!
 +  ?? Tripinnate: :: when each leaflet of a pinnated leaf is pinnate; and the leaflets of the latter are pinnate also. !!
 +  ?? Triternate: :: when each leaflet of a ternate leaf is ternate, and the leaflets of the latter are ternate also. !!
 +  ?? Truncate: :: abruptly Cut off. !!
 +  ?? Tube: :: the part of a flower where the bases of the sepals, petals, or stamens are united. !!
 +  ?? Tuber: :: a deformed, fleshy kind of underground stem. !!
 +  ?? Turbinate: :: shaped like a spinning top. !!
 +
 +[[botany#​A|A]] - [[botany#​B|B]] - [[botany#​C|C]] - [[botany#​D|D]] - [[botany#​E|E]] - [[botany#​F|F]] - [[botany#​G|G]] - [[botany#​H|H]] - [[botany#​I|I]] - [[botany#​L|L]] - [[botany#​M|M]] - [[botany#​N|N]] - [[botany#​O|O]] - [[botany#​P|P]] - [[botany#​Q|Q]] - [[botany#​R|R]] - [[botany#​S|S]] - [[botany#​T|T]] - [[botany#​U|U]] - [[botany#​V|V]] ​
 +
 +===== U =====
 +
 +  ?? Umbel: :: an inflorescence whose branches all radiate from one common point. !!
 +  ?? Umbilicate: :: having a depression in the middle. !!
 +  ?? Umbonate: :: having a boss or elevated point in the middle. !!
 +  ?? Undulated: :: Wavy. !!
 +  ?? Unguiculate:​ :: furnished with a claw, or short stalk. !!
 +  ?? Urceolate: :: shaped like a pitcher. !!
 +  ?? Utricle: :: a small bladder. !!
 +
 +[[botany#​A|A]] - [[botany#​B|B]] - [[botany#​C|C]] - [[botany#​D|D]] - [[botany#​E|E]] - [[botany#​F|F]] - [[botany#​G|G]] - [[botany#​H|H]] - [[botany#​I|I]] - [[botany#​L|L]] - [[botany#​M|M]] - [[botany#​N|N]] - [[botany#​O|O]] - [[botany#​P|P]] - [[botany#​Q|Q]] - [[botany#​R|R]] - [[botany#​S|S]] - [[botany#​T|T]] - [[botany#​U|U]] - [[botany#​V|V]] ​
 +
 +===== V =====
 +
 +  ?? Vagina: :: the sheath formed by the convolution of a flat petiole round a stem. !!
 +  ?? Valve: :: one of the parts into which any dehiscent body divides. !!
 +  ?? Vascular: :: containing vessels; that is, spiral vessels or ducts. !!
 +  ?? Ventricose: :: inflated. !!
 +  ?? Vernation: :: the manner in which the young leaves are arranged in their leaf-bud. !!
 +  ?? Verrucose: :: covered with warts. !!
 +  ?? Versatile: :: swinging lightly upon a sort of pivot. !!
 +  ?? Verticellate:​ :: arranged in a whorl. !!
 +  ?? Vexillum: :: same as Standard. !!
 +  ?? Villous: :: covered with long, soft, shaggy hair. !!
 +  ?? Virgate: :: having long, slender, rodlike shoots. !!
 +  ?? Vitellus: :: a fleshy bag interposed between the embryo and albumen in some seeds. !!
 +  ?? Vittate: :: as distinguished from fasciate or banded. !!
 +
 +===== W =====
 +
 +  ?? Whorl: :: an arrangement of more leaves than two around a common centre upon the same plane. !!
 +
 +[<6>]
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