User Tools

Site Tools


« Dictionary Index « Definitions under F

Formulae Chemical

For the convenience of those who have occasion to refer to a compound substance containing two atoms of base, (as, for instance, antimonious acid in respect to its carbon,) the weight of two atoms of the base is given after the weight of the single atom.

Formulae Chemical: oxygen - nickelFormulae Chemical: oxygen - nickel Enlarge

Formulae Chemical: cobalt - oxalic acidFormulae Chemical: cobalt - oxalic acid Enlarge

Formulae Chemical: boracic acid - oxide of cadmiumFormulae Chemical: boracic acid - oxide of cadmium Enlarge

Formulae Chemical: oxide of zinc - feldsparFormulae Chemical: oxide of zinc - feldspar Enlarge

Berzelius's Symbols of all the Elementary Substances

Element Symbol Element Symbol
Aluminium Al Mercury (Hydrargyrum) Hg
Antimony (Stibium) Sb Molybdenum Mo
Arsenic As Nickel Ni
Barium Ba Nitrogen N
Bismuth Bi Osmium Os
Boron B Oxygen O
Bromine Br Palladium Pd
Cadmium Cd Phosphorus P
Calcium Ca Platinum Pl
Carbon C Potassium (Kalium) K
Cerium Ce Rhodium R
Chlorine Cl Selenium Se
Chromium Cr Silicium Si
Cobalt Co Silver (Argentum) Ag
Columbium (Tantalum) Ta Sodium (Natrium) Na
Copper (Cuprum) Cu Strontium Sr
Fluorine F Sulphur S
Glucinium G Tellurium Te
Gold (Aurum) Au Thorium Th
Hydrogen H Tin (Stannum) Sn
Iodine I Titanium Ti
Iridium Ir Tungsten (Wolfram) W
Iron (Ferrum) Fe Vanadium V
Lead (Plumbum) Pb Uranium U
Lithium L Yttrium Y
Magnesium Mg Zinc Zn
Manganese Mn Zirconium Zr

Degrees of Oxidation are indicated by Dots placed over the Symbol

Degrees of Oxidation are indicated by Dots
Dots indicating the Degrees of Oxidation Enlarge

Table of the principal Groups of the Isomorphous Substances observed by Chemists

Table of Isomorphous Substances Current Around 1841
Table of Isomorphous Substances Current Around 1841 Enlarge

Professor Whewell in an Essay on the Employment of Notation in Chemistry, observes, “I have no hesitation in saying, that in mineralogy it is utterly impossible to express clearly, or to reason upon, the chemical constitution of our substances, without the employment of some notation or other. Every one who makes the trial will find that, without a notation, his attempts to compare the composition of different minerals will be confused and fruitless, and that, by employing symbols, his reasonings may easily be made brief, clear, and systematic.”

After criticising the foreign notation as being grossly anomalous and defective, he adds the following list, which he hopes he has shown to be mathematically consistent and chemically useful. He has used the atomic composition adopted by Dr. Turner in his Chemistry.

Whewell's Substance Notation System
Whewell's Substance Notation System Enlarge

Berzelius represents water {aqua) by Aq; for the sake of simplicity Whewell says he has used q. He also observes, “In the notation of Berzelius, the atoms of oxygen are indicated by dots placed over the symbol of the base. Thus, fe 2 degrees of oxidation, fe 3 degrees of oxidation are the protoxide and peroxide of iron, which he considers as having two and three atoms of oxygen respectively. This notation is compact and simple, but it is not consistent with algebraical rule, so far as the oxygen is concerned; and I conceive that, if this element be explicitly expressed, it ought to be done in the manner I have recommended, fe + 2 o, fe + 3 o, &c.” — Journals of Royal Institution.

I have omitted Professor Whewell's reasons, which he gives to show the superiority of his notation over those of foreign nations and that of Berzelius, as they are not of practical utility in printing; but I have given his list, which will be useful in printing mineralogical works in cases where the copy may be bad.

First PagePrevious PageNext PageLast Page