with the abbreviations by which they are cited.
“The modes of quoting the Civil and Canon Laws. — The Institutions are contained in four Books: each Book is divided into Titles; and each Title into paragraphs; of which the first, described by the Letters pr. or princip. is not numbered. The Digests or Pandects are in fifty Books: each Book is distributed into Titles; each Title into Laws; and, very frequently, Laws into Paragraphs, of which the first is not numbered. The Code is comprised in twelve Books: each of which is divided, like the Digests, into Titles and Laws; and, sometimes, Laws into Paragraphs. The Novels are distinguished by their Number, Chapter, and Paragraph.
“The old way of quoting was much more troublesome, by only mentioning the Number, or initial Words, of the Paragraph or Law, without expressing the number either of Book or Title. Thus, § si adversus, 12 Inst, de Nuptiis, means the 12th Paragraph of the Title in the Institutions de Nuptiis, which Paragraph begins with the Words si adversus; and which a modern Civilian would cite thus, I. 1. 10. 12. So l. 30 D. de R. J. signifies the 30th, Law of the Title in the Digests de Regulis Juris: according to the modern way thus, D. 50. 17. 30. Again, I. 5. § 3. ff. de Jurejur. means the 3d Paragraph of the 5th Law of the Title in the Digests de Jurejurando: better thus, D. 12. 2. 5. 3. And here note, that the Digests are sometimes referred to, as in the last instance, by a double f; and at other times by the Greek Π or π.
“The method of quoting the Roman Canon Law is as follows. The Decree, as said above, consists of three Parts; of which the first contains 101 Distinctions, each Distinction being subdivided into Canons: thus, 1 dist. c. 3. Lex (or 1 d. Lex) is the first Distinction, and 3d Canon, beginning with the word Lex. The second part of the Decree contains 36 Causes; each Cause comprehending several Questions, and each Question several Canons: thus 3. qu. 9. c. 2. Caveant is Cause the 3d, Question the 9th, and Canon the 2d, beginning with Caveant. The third part of the Decree contains 5 Distinctions, and is quoted as the first part, with the addition of the words de Consecratione; thus, de Consecr. dist. 2. can. Quia corpus (or, can. Quia corpus 35. dist. 2. d. Consecr.) means the 2d Distinction, and the 35th Canon of the Treatise de Consecratione, which Canon begins with Quia corpus.
“The Decretals are in three Parts; of which the first contains Gregory's Decretals in 5 Books; each Book being divided into Titles, and each Title into Chapters: and these are cited by the name of the title, and the number of the chapter, with the addition of the word Extra, or the capital letter X: thus, c. 3. Extra de Usuris; is the 3d Chapter of the Title in Gregory's Decretals, which is inscribed de Usuris; which Title, by looking into the Index, is found to be the 19th of the 5th Book. Thus also, c. cum contingat. 36 X. de Offic. & Pot. Jud. Del. is the 36th Chapter, beginning with Cum contingat of the Title, in Gregory's Decretals, which is inscribed de Officio et Potestate Judicis Delgati; and which, by consulting the Index, we find is the 29th Title of the 1st Book. The Sixth Decretal, and the Clementine; Constitutions, each consisting of .5 Books, are quoted in the same manner as Gregory's Decretals; only, instead of Extra or X, there is subjoined in sexto or in 6, and in Clementinis or in Clem, according as either part is referred to: thus, c. Si gratiose 5 de Rescrip. in 6, is the 5th Chapter, beginning with Si gratiose, of the Title de Rescriptis, in the 6th Decretal; the Title so inscribed being the 3d of the 1st Book: and Clem. 1. de Sent, et Re Judic. (or, de Sent. et R. J. ut calumniis, in Clem) (or, c. ut calumniis 1. de Sent. et R. J. in Clem.) is the first Chapter of the Clementine Constitutions, under the Title de Sententiâ et Re Judicatâ; which Chapter begins with Ut calumniis, and belongs to the xith Title of the 2d Book.
”The Extravagants of John the 22d are contained in one Book, divided into 14 Titles: thus, Extravag. Ad Conditorem, Joh. 22. de V.S. means the Chapter, beginning with Ad Conditorem, of the Extravagants of John 22d; Title, de Verborum Significationibus. Lastly, the Extravagants of later Popes are called Communes, being distributed into S Books, and these again into Titles and Chapters: thus Extravag. Commun. c. Salvator. de Praebend. is the Chapter beginning with Salvator, among the Extravagantes Communes; Title, de Praebendis” — Bibliotheca Legum. See Dr. Hallifax's Analysis of the Roman Civil Law, and Butler's Horae Juridicae Subsecivae.