Is the art of producing impressions from the surface of engravings in relief, whether those engravings are letters, diagrams, or pictorial engravings.
This explanation applies to letterpress printing, to which this work is confined, in contradistinction to copperplate printing. The details of the practice are diffused through the whole book, and may be referred to under their respective names.
The art of printing is the most important invention that was ever introduced to the world, in its effects on the human mind, and of consequence on all civilized society; — it preserves and disseminates all discoveries and improvements in the arts and sciences; it commemorates all other inventions; it hands down to posterity every important event; it immortalizes the actions of the great and good; and, above all, it extends and diffuses the word of God to all mankind; — and yet this very art has left its own origin enveloped in mystery and obscurity.
31 Hen. 8. c. 14. intituled, “An Act for abolishing of diuersitie of opinions in certaine Articles concerning christian religion.”
s. 4. “It is therefore ordeined and enacted by the King our Souereigne Lord, the Lords spirituall and temporal, and the Commons in this present parliament assembled, and by authority of the same, That if any person or persons within this Realme of England, or any other the king's dominions, after the xii. day of July next coming, by word, writing, imprinting, ciphering, or in any otherwise, doe publish, preach, teach, say, affirme, declare, dispute, argue, or hold any opinion, that in the blessed Sacrament of the Altar, vnder the forme of bread and wine (after the Consecration thereof) there is not present really, the naturall body and blood of our Sauiour Jesu Christ, conceiued of the Virgin Mary, or that after the said consecration there remaineth any substance of bread or wine, or any other substance but the substance of Christ, God and man: or after the time aboue said, publish, preach, teach, say, affirme, declare, dispute, argue, or hold opinion, that in the flesh, vnder forme of bread is not the very blood of Christ: or that with the blood vnder the forme of wine, is not the very flesh of Christ, aswel apart as though they were both together: or by any the means abouesaid, or otherwise, preach, teach, declare, or affirme the said Sacrament to be of other substance than is abouesayd, or by any meanes contemne, depraue, or despise the said blessed Sacrament: that then every such person and persons so offending, their aiders, comforters, counsellers, consentors, and abettors therein, being thereof convicted in forme vnderwritten by the authority abouesaid, shall be deemed and adjudged heretikes. And that euery such offence shall be iudged manifest heresie: and that euery such offender and offenders shall therefore haue and suffer iudgement, execution, paine and paines of death, by way of burning without any abiuration, Clergie or Sanctuary, to be therfore permitted, had, allowed, admitted or suffered: and also shall therefore forfeit and lose to the Kings highnes, his heires and successors, all his or their honors, manors, castles, lands, tenements, rents, reuersions, seruices, possessions, and all other his or their hereditaments, goods, and chattels, farmes and freeholds, whatsoeuer they be, which any such offender or offenders shall haue at the time of any such offence or offences committed or done, or at any time after, as in cases of high treason.”
s. 6. “Also bee it enacted by the authoritie aforesaid, That if any person or persons after the said twelfth day of July, by word, writing, printing, ciphering, or otherwise then as aboue rehearsed, publish, declare, or hold opinion, that the said communion of the blessed Sacrament in both kinds aforesaid, is necessary for the health of mans soule to bee given or ministered in both kindes, and so ought or should bee given and ministred to any person, or ought or should bee so in both kindes receiued or taken by any person, other than by Priests being at Masse, and so consecrating the same as is aforesaid: or that any man after the order of Priesthood receiued as is aforesaid, may marrie or may make contract of matrimonie: or that any man or woman which aduisedly hath made or shall make a vow to God of chastitie or widowhood, may marrie, or make contract of matrimony: or that priuate Masses be not lawfull or not laudable, or should not be celebrated, had, or vsed, nor be agreeable to the lawes of God: or that auricular confession is not expedient and necessary to be reteined and continued, vsed and frequented in the Church of God, euery person being for any such offence duely conuicted or attainted by the lawes vnderwritten, shall forfeit and lose to the King our Souereigne Lord all his goods and chattels for euer, and also the profits of all his lands, tenements, annuities, fees, and offices during his life, and all his benefices and Spiritual promotions shall bee vtterly voyd, and also shall suffer imprisonment of his body at the will and pleasure of our said Souereign Lord the King. And if any such person or persons being once conuict of any the offences mentioned in this Article as is abouesaid, doe afterward eftsoones offend in any of the same, and be thereof accused, indicted or presented, and conuict againe by authority of the lawes underwritten, that then euery such person and persons so being twice conuict and attainted of the said offences, or any of them, shall be adjudged a felon and felons, and shall suffer iudgement, execution, and paines of death, losse and forfeiture of lands and goods, as in oases of felonie, without any priviledge of Clergie, or Sanctuary to be in any wise permitted, admitted or allowed in that behalfe.”
21 Jac. 1. c. 3. s. 10. “Provided also, and be it enacted, That this Act, or any Declaration, Provision, Disablement, Penalty, Forfeiture, or other Thing before-mentioned, shall not extend to any Letters Patents, or Grants of Privilege heretofore made, or hereafter to be made, of, for, or concerning Printing, nor to any Commission, Grant, or Letters Patents heretofore made, or hereafter to be made, for or concerning the Digging, Making or Compounding of Salt-petre or Gunpowder, or the Casting or Making of Ordnance, or Shot for Ordnance, nor to any Grant or Letters Patents heretofore made, or hereafter to be made, of any Office or Offices heretofore erected, made, or ordained, and now in Being, and put in Execution, other than such Offices as have been decried by any of his Majesty's Proclamation or Proclamations; But that all and every the same Grants, Commissions, and Letters Patents, and all other Matters and Things tending to the Maintaining, Strengthening and Furtherance of the same, or any of them, shall be and remain of the like Force and Effect, and no other, and as free from the Declarations, Provisions, Penalties and Forfeitures contained in this Act, as if this Act had never been had nor made, and not otherwise.”
Ireland. 43 Geo. 3. c 21. s. 70. “And be it further enacted. That from and after the Twenty-fifth Day of March One thousand eight hundred and three, no Person or Persons shall keep any Printing Press or Types for printing in Ireland, without first taking out a Licence for that Purpose from the said Commissioners of Stamp Duties; and that from and immediately after the passing of this Act, and from thenceforth as often as they shall be applied to, the said Commissioners for the Time being, or any One or more of them, shall, under their Hands and Seals, or Hand and Seal, grant such Licence for keeping Printing Presses or Types, to such Person or Persons who shall apply for the same, and who shall have performed the Requisites which shall by any Law then in Force in Ireland be necessary to he performed; which Licence shall state the House where such Presses or Types are to be used; and every Person or Persons who shall keep or use a Printing Press or Types for printing, without having obtained such Licence, shall forfeit such Printing Press and Types, and the Sum of One hundred Pounds Irish currency.”
55 Geo. 3. c. 101. “An Act to regulate the Collection of Stamp Duties on Matters in respect of which Licences may be granted by the Commissioners of Stamps in Ireland.
s. 13. “And be it further enacted, That no Person or Persons shall keep any Printing Press, or Types for printing in Ireland, without having first taken out a Licence for that Purpose, from the said Commissioners of Stamps, and that the said Commissioners shall, from time to time, under their Hands and Seals, grant such Licence for keeping Printing Presses or Types to such Person or Persons as shall apply for the same, and who shall have performed the Requisites which shall by any Act or Acts from time to time in force in Ireland, be necessary to be performed previous to the granting thereof, which Licence shall state the House where such Press or Presses, or Types, are to be used; and every Person or Persons who shall keep or use such Press, or a Printing Press or Types for printing, without having obtained such Licence, or in any other House save the House so mentioned in such Licence, shall forfeit such Printing Press and Types, and the Sum of Forty Pounds.”
Restrictions. — Ever since the introduction of printing into Europe, the press has been subjected to great restrictions. To show the nature of those restrictions in England, I have inserted two decrees of the Star Chamber, in the time of Queen Elizabeth, and the act 13 & 14 Charles 2. c. 33.; the principle of these was revived, with some modification, by the Act 39 Geo. 3. c. 79.
To the 9th volume of the Statutes at Large is prefixed a Preface, or Address from the Editor, Owen Ruffhead, to the Reader, from which the, following is an Extract.
“What next claims our Observation is the memorable Act of 13 Car. 2. c. 33. intitled 'An Act for preventing Abuses in printing seditious, treasonable and unlicensed Books and Pamphlets; and for regulating Printing and Printing Presses.' By this Act Printers are forbidden to publish any heretical, seditious, schismatical or offensive1) Books, and all Books and Pamphlets are to be licensed by particular Licensers appointed according to the Nature of the Subject, and the Number of Printing Presses are hereby limited.
“The Troubles which had subsisted in the late Reign, had given Birth to a free Spirit of political Inquiry, which this Statute was calculated to suppress: And it is observable, that this Act is founded on a decree of the Star Chamber 2), made in the Year 1637, which it copies without any material Variation, except that by the Decree, Offenders are to be punished as by the Honourable Court of Star Chamber, or the High Commission Court, shall be thought fit; whereas by the Act they are to be punished by Disability to exercise their Profession, and such farther Punishment, not extending to Life or Limb, as the Justices of the King's Bench, or of Oyer and Terminer, &c. shall think fit. It is remarkable, also, that the Preamble to this Decree of the Star Chamber takes Notice of divers Decrees and Ordinances made for regulating Printers and Printing in the Reign of Queen Elizabeth, which are said to have been defective in some Particulars, From hence we may see what early Attempts were made to restrain this invaluable Liberty. So intolerant is the Nature of Power, wherever lodged, that they who have loudest exclaimed against such Restriction as a Badge of Slavery, were no sooner invested with full Sway, than they began to work on the same Principles of Oppression. About the Year 1644, the Parliament made Ordinances for restraining the Press, which were framed on the Plan of the above Star Chamber Decree; and against which Milton published a Treatise called Areopagitica.3)
“This Act was last continued by 1 Jac. 2. c.17. for seven Years from June, 1685; but being incompatible with the noble Principles of the Revolution, it has never since been, and it is to be hoped never will be, revived.” 4)
Decrees of the Lords in the Star Chamber, touching Printers, Stationers, &c. 23 Junii, Eliz, 28. 1585. Orders for them sent to Archbishop Whitgift
Whereas sundrie decrees and ordinances have, upon grave advice and deliberation, been made and published for the repressing of such great enormities and abuses as of late (most men in tyme past) have been commonlye used and practised by diverse contemptuouse and disorderly persons, professing the arte or misterie of printing and selling of books; and yet, notwithstanding, the said abuses and enormities are nothing abated, but (as is found by experience) doe rather more and more increase, to the wilful and manifest breach and contempt of the saide ordinances and decrees, to the great displeasure and offence of the queen's moste excellent majestic; by reason whereof sundrie intolerable offences, troubles, and disturbances, have happened, as well in the church as in the civile government of the state and commonweale of this roecalme, which seem to have growen, because the paynes and penalties, conteyned and sett downe in the said ordinances and decrees, have been too light and small for the correction and punishment of so grievouse and heynonse offences, and so the offenders and malefactors in that behalfe have not been so severely punished as the qualitie of their offences hath deserved; her majestie, therefore, of her moste godlie and gracious disposicion, being careful that speedie and due reformacion be had of the abuses and disorders aforesaid, and that all persons using or professing the arte, trade, or mysterie of printing, or selling of books, should from henceforth be ruled and directed therein by some certeyn and knowen rules or ordinances, which should be inviolablie kept and observed, and the breakers and offenders of the same to be severely and sharplie punished and corrected, hathe straytly charged and required the most reverend father-in-God, the archbishop of Canterburie, and the right honourable the lordes, and others of her majesties privy council, to see her majesties said most gracious and godlie intention and purpose to be dulie and effectuallie executed and accomplished. Whereupon the said most reverend father, and the whole present in this honourable cowrte, this 23rd 4ay of June, in the twenty-eighth year of her majesties reign, upon grave and mature deliberation, have ordeyned and decreed that the ordinances and constitutions, rules and articles, hereafter following, shall, from henceforth, by all persons, be duly and inviolablie kept and observed, according to the tenor, purporte, and true intent and meaning of the same, as they tender her majesties high displeasure, and as they wyll aunswere to the contrarie at their uttermoste peril. Videlicet.
Imprimis, That every printer, and other person, or persons whatsoever, which at this tyme present hath erected, or set up, or hereafter shall erect, set up, keepe, mainteyn, or have anye printing-presse, rowle, or other instrument, for imprinting of books, chartes, ballades, pourtrayctures, paper called damask-paper, or any such matters or things whatsoever, shall bring a true note, or certificate of the saide presses, or other printing instruments allreadie erected, within tenne days next coming, after the publication hereof; and of the saide presses, or other printing instruments hereafter to be erected, or set up, from tyme to tyme, within tenn dayes next after the erecting, or setting up thereof, unto the master and wardens of the companie of stacioners, of the cittie of London, for the tyme being, upon payne that everye person fayling, or offending herein, shall have all and everie the said presses, and other instruments, utterlye defaced and made unserviceable for imprinting for ever; and shall also suffer twelve moneths imprisonment without bayle or maynprise.
2. Item, That no printer of bookes, nor any other person or persons whatsoever, shall set up, keepe, or mayntain, any presse or presses, or any other instrument, or instruments, for imprinting of bookes, ballades, chartes, pourtrayctures, or any other thing or things whatsoever, but onelye in the cittie of London, or the suburbs thereof (except one presse in the universitie of Cambridge, and one other presse in the universitie of Oxforde, and no more) and that no person shall hereafter erect, sett up, or maynteyne in any secrett, or obscure corner, or place, any such presse or instrument before expressed; but that the same shall be in suche open place or places, in his or their house or houses, as the wardeins of the saide Companie of Stationers, for the tyme being, or suche other person, or persons, as by the saide wardeins shall be thereunto appointed, may from tyme to tyme have readie accesse unto, to search for and viewe the same; and that no printer or other person, or persons, shall at any time hereafter withstande, or make resistance to, or in, any suche view or search, nor denye, or keepe secrett any suche presse, or other instrument, for imprinting, upon payne that every person offending in any thing contrarie to this article, shall have all the saide presses, and other printing instruments, defaced, and made unserviceable for imprinting for ever; and shall also suffer imprisonment one whole year, without bayle, or maynprise, and to be disabled for ever to keepe any printing-presse, or other instrument for printing, or to be master of any printing-howsse, or to have any benefite thereby, other than onelye to worke as a journeyman for wages.
3. Item, That no printer, nor other person or persons whatsoever, that hath sett up anye presse, or instruments for imprinting within six moneths last past, shall hereafter use, or occupie the same, nor any person or persons shall hereafter erect, or sett up any presse, or other instrument of printing, till the excessive multitude of printers, having presses alreadie sett up, be abated, diminished, and by death given over, or otherwise brought to so small a number of masters, or owners of printing-howses, being of abilitie and good behaviour, as the archbishopp of Canterburie and bishopp of London, for the tyme being, shall thereupon think it requisite, and convenient, for the good service of the realme, to have some more presses, or instruments for printing erected, and sett up; and that when, and as often as the said archbishopp and bishopp, for the tyme being, shall so think it requisite and convenient, and shall signifie the same to the said master and wardeins of the said companie of Stationers, for the tyme being; that then, and so often, the saide master and wardeins, shall (within convenient tyme after) call the assistants of the saide companie before them, and shall make choice of one, or more (as by the opinion of the saide archbishopp and bishopp, for the tyme being, need shall require) of suche persons being free stationers, as for theyr skill, abilitie, and good behaviour, shall be thought by the saide master, wardeins, and assistants, or the more parte of them, meet to have the charge and government of a presse; or printing-house; and that within fowerteen dayes next after suche election, and choice, the saide master, wardeins, and fower other at the least of the assistants of the saide companie, shall present before the high commissioners in causes ecclesiastical, or sixe or more of them, whereof the saide archbishopp, or bishopp, to be one, to allowe, and admitt everie suche person so chosen and presented, to be master and governoure of a presse, and printing-housse, according to the same election and presentment, upon payne that everie person offending contrary to the intent of this article, shall have his presse, and instruments for printing, defaced, and made unserviceable, and allso suffer imprisonment, by the space of one whole yeare, without bayle, or maynprize. Provided allwayes, that this article, or any thing therein conteyned, shall not extend to the office of the queene's majesties printer for the service of the realme; but that the said office, and offices, shall be, and continue at the pleasure and disposicion of her majestie, her heires, and successors, at all tymes, upon the death of her highnes's printer, or otherwise.
4. Item, That no person, or persons, shall imprint, or cause to be imprinted, or suffer by any meanes to his knowledge, his presse, letters, or other instruments, to be occupied in printing of any booke, worke, coppie, matter, or thing whatsoever, except the same booke, worke, coppie, matter, or any thing hath bene heretofore allowed, or hereafter shall be allowed, before the imprinting thereof, according to the order appointed by the queene's majesties injunctions, and be first scene and perused by the archbishopp of Canterburie, and bishopp of London, for the tyme being, or one of them (the queene's majesties printer for some special service by her majestie, or by some of her highnes privie councell thereunto appoynted; and suche are, or shal be priviledged to print the, bookes of the common lawe of this realme, for suche of the same books, as shal be allowed of by the two cheefe justices, and cheefe barons, for the tyme being, or any two of them, onelye excepted) nor shall imprint, or cause to be imprinted, any booke, worke, or coppie, against the forme and meaning of any restraynte, or ordinance conteyned, or to be conteyned, in any statute, or lawes of this realme, or in any injunction made, or sett forthe by her majestie, or her highness privie counsell, or againste the true intent and meaning of any letters patent, commissions, or prohibicions, under the great scale of Englande; or contrarie to any allowed ordinaunce, sett downe for the good governaunce. of the Company of Stationers, within the cittie of London; upon payne to haue all suche presses, letters, and instruments, as in or about the imprinting of any suche bookes, or copies, shall be imployed or used, to be defaced, and made unserviceable for imprinting for ever; and upon payne allso, that everye offender, and offenders, contrarie to this present article, or ordinaunce, shal be disabled (after any suche offence) to use, or exercise, or take benefite by using, or exercising of the arte, or feate of imprinting; and shall moreover susteyne sixe moneths imprisonment without bayle, or maynprise.
5. Item, That every suche person, as shall sell, utter, or putt to sale wittingly, bynde, stitch, or sowe; or wittinglie cause to be solde, uttered, put to sale, bounde, stitched, or sowed, any bookes, or copies whatsoever, printed contrarie to the intent and true meaning of any ordinaunce, or article aforesaid, shall suffer three moneths imprisonment for his, or their offence.
6. Item, That it shall be lawfull for the Wardeins of the saide companye, for the tyme being, or any two of the saide companie thereto deputed, by the saide Wardeins, to make searche in all work-howses, shopps, ware-howses of printers, booke-sellers, booke-bynders, or where they shall haue reasonable cause of suspition; and all bookes, copies, matters, and things printed, or to be printed; contrarie to the intent and meaning of these present ordinances, to seaze and take to her majesties use, and the same to carrie into the Stacioners-hall in London; and the partie, or parties, offending in printing, selling, uttering, bynding, stitching, or sowing any such bookes, copies, matters, or things, to arrest, bring, and present before the said highe commissioners in causes ecclesiasticall, or some three, or more of them, whereof the said archbishop of Canterburie, or bishopp of London, for the tyme being, to be one.
7. Item, That it shall be lawfull to and for the aforesaide wardeins, for the tyme being, or any two by them appoynted, without lett, or interruption of any person, or persons whatsoever, to enter into any howsse, work-howsse, warehowsse, shopp, or other place, or places; and to seaze, take, and carrie away all presses, letters, and other printing instruments, sett up, used, or imployed, contrarie to the true meaning hereof, to be defaced, and made unserviceable, as aforesaid; and that the saide wardeins shall so often as need shall require, call the assistants of the saide companie or the more parte of them into their saide hall, and there take order for the defacing, burning, breaking, and destroying of all the saide letters, presses, and other printing instruments aforesaide; and thereupon shall cause all suche printing presses, or other printing instruments, be defaced, melted, sawed, in pieces, broken, or battered, at the smythes forge, or otherwise to be made unserviceable; and the stuffe of the same so defaced, shall redelyver to the owners thereof agayne, within three moneths next after the taking, or seazing thereof, as aforesayde.
8. Item, That for the avoyding of the excessive number of printers within this realme, it shall not be lawfull for any person or persons, being free of the Companie of Stacioners, on using the trade or mysterie of printing, booke-selling, or booke-bynding, to have, take, and keepe hereafter, at one tyme, any greater number of apprentizes, than shall be hereafter expressed; that is to say, every person that hath been or shall be master, or upper wardein of the companie, whereof he is free, to keepe three apprentizes at one tyme, and not above; and every person that is, or shall be under wardein, or of the liverie of the companie whereof he is free, to keep two apprentizes, and not above; and every person that is, or shall be of the yeomanrie of the companie, whereof he is, or shall be free, to keep one apprentize (if he himself be not a journeyman) and not above. Provided allwayes, that this ordinaunce shall not extend to the queen's majesties printer for the tyme being, for the service of her majestie, and the reaJme, but that he be at libertie to keepe and have apprentizes, to the number of sixe at any one tyme.
9. Item, That none of the printers in Cambridge, or Oxford, for the tyme being, shall be suffered to have any more apprentizes, than one at one tyme at the moste. But it is, and shall be lawful], to, and for the saide printers, and either of them, and their successors, to have, and use the help of anye journeyman, being freemen of the cittie of London, without contradiction; any lawe, statute, or commaundement, contrarie to the meaning and due execution of those ordinaunces, or any of them, in any wise notwithstanding.
July 11, 1637. — “A decree of the Star Chamber concerning printing,” was published by authority, restricting the number of printers to twenty, besides his majesty's printer, and the printers allowed for the universities. The letter-founders were at the same time restricted to four.
The allowed printers at this time were, Felix Kingstone, Adam Islip, Thomas Purfoot, Miles Flesher, Thomas Harper, John Beale, John Legat, Robert Young, John Haviland, George Miller, Richard Badger, Thomas Cotes, Bernard Alsop, Richard Bishop, Edward Griffin, Thomas Purslow, Richard John Raworth, Marmaduke Hodkinsonne, John Dawson, John Parsons.
The letter-founders were, John Grismand, Arthur Nichols, Thomas Wright, Alexander Fifeild.
13 & 14 Charles 2. c 33. intituled “An Act for preventing Abuses in Printing Seditious, Treasonable and Unlicensed Books and Pamphlets, and for Regulating of Printing and Printing Presses.
“Whereas the well government and regulating of Printers and Printing-Presses is matter of publick care, and of great concernment, especially considering, that by the general Licentiousness of the late Times, many evil-disposed Persons have been encouraged to Print and sell Heretical, Schismatical, Blasphemous, Seditious and Treasonable Books, Pamphlets and Papers, and still do continue such their unlawful and exorbitant practice, to the high dishonour of Almighty God, the indangering the Peace of these Kingdoms, and raising a disaffection to his most excellent Majesty and his Government; For prevention whereof, no surer means can be advised, than by reducing and limiting the number of Printing-Presses, and by ordering and settling the said Art or Mystery of Printing by Act of Parliament, in manner as herein after is expressed:
s. 2. “The King's most excellent Majesty, by and with the consent and advice of the Lords Spiritual and Temporal, and Commons in this present Parliament assembled, doth therefore ordain and enact, and be it ordained and enacted by the Authority aforesaid, That no person or persons whatsoever shall presume to Print, or cause to be Printed, either within this Realm of England, or any other his Majesty's Dominions, or in the Parts beyond the Seas, any Heretical, Seditious, Schismatical or offensive Books or Pamphlets, wherein any Doctrine or Opinion shall be asserted or maintained, which is contrary to the Christian Faith, or the Doctrine or Discipline of the Church of England, or which shall or may tend, or be to the scandal of Religion, or the Church, or the Government or Governors of the Church, State or Common-wealth, or of any Corporation or particular person or persons whatsoever; nor shall Import, Publish, Sell or Disperse any such Book or Books, or Pamphlets, nor shall cause or procure any such to be published or put to sale, or to be Bound, Stitched, or Sewed together.
s. 3. “And be it further ordained and enacted by the Authority aforesaid. That no private person or persons whatsoever shall at any time hereafter Print or cause to be Printed any Book, or Pamphlet whatsoever, unless the same Book and Pamphlet, together with all and every the Titles, Epistles, Prefaces, Proems, Preambles, Introductions, Tables, Dedications, and other matters and things thereunto annexed, he first Entred in the Book of the Register of the Company of Stationers in London, Except Acts of Parliament, Proclamations, and such other Books and Papers as shall be appointed to be Printed by virtue of any Warrant under the King's Majesties Sign-Manual, or under the Hand of one or both of his Majesties Principal Secretaries of State; and unless the same Book and Pamphlet, and also all and every the said Titles, Epistles, Prefaces, Proems, Preambles, Introductions, Tables, Dedications, and other matters and things whatsoever thereunto annexed, or therewith to be Imprinted, shall be first lawfully Licensed and Authorized to be Printed by such Person and Persons only as shall be constituted and appointed to License the same, according to the Direction and true meaning of this present Act herein after expressed, and by no other; (that is to say) That all Books concerning the Common- Laws of this Realm, shall be Printed by the special Allowance of the Lord-Chancellor, or Lord Keeper of the Great-Seal of England for the time being, the Lords Chief-Justices, and Lord Chief-Baron for the time being, or one or more of them, or by their, or one or more of their appointments; And that all Books of History concerning the State of this Realm, or other Books concerning any Affairs of State, shall be Licensed by the Principal Secretaries of State for the time being, or one of them, or by their, or one of their appointments; And that all Books to be Imprinted concerning Heraldry, Titles of Honour, and Arms, or otherwise concerning the Office of Earl-Marshal, shall be Licensed by the Earl-Marshal for the time being, or by his appointment, or in case there shall not then be an Earl-Marshal, shall be Licensed by the three Kings of Arms, Garter, Clarencieux, and Norroy, or any two of them, whereof Garter Principal King of Arms to be one; And that all other Books to be Imprinted or Reprinted, whether of Divinity, Physick, Philosophy, or whatsoever other Science or Art, shall he first Licensed and allowed by the Lord Archbishop of Canterbury, and Lord Bishop of London, for the time being, or one of them, or by their or one of their Appointments, or by either of the Chancellors, or Vice-Chancellors of the Universities of this Realm for the time being; Provided always, that the said Chancellors, or Vice-Chancellors of either of the said Universities shall only License such Books as are to be Imprinted or Reprinted within the Limits of the said Universities respectively, but not in London or elsewhere, not medling either with Books of Common-Laws, or matters of State or Government, nor any Book or Books, the right of Printing whereof doth solely and properly belong to any particular Person or Persons, without his or their Consent first obtained in that behalf.
s. 4. “And be it enacted by the Authority aforesaid. That every person or persons who by virtue of this present Act are, or shall be appointed, or authorised to License the Imprinting of Books, or Reprinting thereof with any Additions or Amendments, as aforesaid, shall have one written Copy of the same Book or Books which shall be so Licensed to be Imprinted or Reprinted with the Titles, Epistles, Prefaces, Tables, Dedications, and all other things whatsoever thereunto annexed; which said Copy shall be delivered by such Licencer or Licencers to the Printer or Owner after the Imprinting thereof, and shall be solely and intirely returned by such Printer or Owner after the imprinting thereof, unto such Licencer or Licencers, to be kept in the publick Registries of the said Lord Archbishop, or Lord Bishop of London respectively, or in the Office of the Chancellor or Vice-Chancellor of either of the said Universities, or with said Lord-Chancellor or Lord-Keeper of the Great Seal for the time being, or Lord Chief-Justices, or Chief-Baron, or one of them, or the said Principal Secretaries of State, or with the Earl-Marshal, or the said Kings of Arms, or one of them, of all such Books as shall be Licensed by them respectively; and if such Book so to be Licensed shall be an English-Book, or of the English-Tongue, there shall be two written Copies thereof delivered to the Licencer or Licencers (if he or they shall so require), one Copy whereof so Licensed shall be delivered back to the said Printer or Owner, and the other Copy shall be reserved and kept as is aforesaid, to the end such Licencer or Licencers may be secured, that the Copy so Licensed shall not be altered without his or their privity; And upon the said Copy Licensed to be Imprinted, he or they who shall so Licence the same, shall testifie under his or their Hand or Hands, That there is not any thing in the same contained that is contrary to the Christian Faith, or the Doctrine or Discipline of the Church of England, or against the State or Government of this Realm, or contrary to good Life, or good Manners, or otherwise as the nature and subject of the Work shall require; Which Licence or Approbation shall be printed in the beginning of the same Book, with the Name or Names of him or them that shall Authorize or License the same, for a Testimony of the Allowance thereof.
s. 5. “And be it further enacted by the Authority aforesaid. That every Merchant of Books, and Person or Persons whatsoever, who doth, or hereafter shall Import or bring any Book or Books into this Realm from any Parts beyond the Seas, shall Import the same in the Port of London only, and not elsewhere, without the special Licence of the Archbishop of Canterbury, and Bishop of London for the time being, or one of them, who are hereby authorized to grant Licences for that purpose, and shall before such time as the same Book or Books, or any of them be delivered forth, or out of his or their hand or hands, or exposed to Sale, give and present a true Note or Catalogue in writing of all and every such Book or Books, unto the Lord Archbishop of Canterbury, and Lord Bishop of London for the time being, or to one of them, and no Merchant or other Person or Persons whatsoever which shall impost or bring any Book or Books into the Port of London aforesaid, from any Parts beyond the Seas, shall presume to open any Dry-Fats, Bales, Packs, Maunds, or other Fardles of Books, or wherein Books are, nor shall any Searcher, Waiter, or other Officer, belonging to the Custom-house, upon pain of losing his or their Place or Places, suffer the same to pass, or to be delivered out of his or their hands or custody, before such time as the Lord Archbishop of Canterbury and the Lord Bishop of London for the time being, or one of them, shall have appointed some Scholar or Learned Man, with one or more of the said Company of Stationers, and such others as they shall call to their Assistance, to be present at the opening thereof, and to view the same; And if there shall happen to be found any Heretical, Seditious, Scandalous, Schismatical, or other dangerous or offensive Book or Books, or any part of such Book or Books printed in English, they shall forthwith be brought to the said Lord Archbishop of Canterbury, and Lord Bishop of London for the time being, or to one of them, or to some publick place to be assigned and chosen by the said Lord Archbishop, and Lord Bishop for the time being, to the end the person and persons which Importeth, or causeth the said offensive Books to be Imported, may be proceeded against as an Offender against this present Act; And also that such further course may be taken concerning the same Offensive Book or Books, as by the said Lord Archbishop and Bishop for the time being, shall be thought fitting for the suppressing thereof.
s. 6. “And be it further enacted by the authority aforesaid, That no person or persons shall within this Kingdom, or elsewhere. Imprint or cause to be Imprinted, nor shall Import or bring in, or cause to be Imported or brought into this Kingdom from or out of any other his Majesties Dominions, nor from any other Parts beyond the Seas, any Copy or Copies, Book or Books, or part of any Book or Books, or Forms of Blank-bills or Indentures for any his Majesties Islands, printed beyond the Seas, or elsewhere, which any person or persons by force or virtue of any Letters-Patents granted or assigned, or which shall hereafter be granted or assigned to him or them, or (where the same are not granted by any Letters-Patent) by force or virtue of any Entry or Entries thereof duly made or to be made in the Register-Book of the said Company of Stationers, or in the Register-Book of either of the Universities respectively, have or shall have the Right, Priviledge, Authority, or Allowance, solely to Print, without the consent of the Owner or Owners of such Book or Books, Copy or Copies, Form or Forms of such Blank-bills, nor shall Bind, Stitch, or put to Sale any such Book or Books, or part of any Book or Books, Form or Forms, without the like consent, upon pain of loss and forfeiture of the same, and of being proceeded against as an Offender against this present Act, and upon the further penalty and forfeiture of Six shillings eight pence for every such Book or Books, or part of such Book or Books, Copy or Copies, or Form or Forms of any such Blank-bills or Indentures so Imprinted or Imported, Bound, Stitched, or put to Sale; The moiety of which said forfeiture and forfeitures shall be to the use of our Sovereign Lord the King, his Heirs and Successors, and the other moiety to the use of the Owner or Owners, Proprietors of such Copy or Copies, Book or Books, or Form of such Blank-bills or Indentures, if he or they shall sue for the same within Six Months next after such Imprinting, Importing, Binding, Stitching, or putting to Sale; And in default of such Suit by the Owner or Owners, Proprietor or Proprietors, commenced within the said Six Months, Then the same moiety shall be to the use and behoof of such other person and persons as within the space of one Year next after the said Offence committed, shall sue for the same, to be recovered by Action of Debt, Bill, Plaint or Information, in any of his Majesties Courts of Record held at Westminster, called the King's-Bench, Common-Pleas, or Exchequer, wherein no Essoign, Wager of Law, or Protection shall be allowed to the Defendant or Defendants.
s. 7. “And be it further enacted and declared. That every person and persons that shall hereafter Print, or cause to be Printed any Book, Ballad, Chart, Pourttracture, or any other thing or things whatsoever, shall thereunto, or thereon, Print and set his or their own Name or Names, and also shall declare the Name of the Author thereof, if he be thereunto required by the Licencer under whose Approbation the Licensing of the said Book, Ballad, Chart, or Pourtracture shall be Authorized, and by and for whom any such Book or other thing is or shall be Printed, upon pain of forfeiture of all such Books, Ballads, Charts, Pourtractures, and other thing or things Printed contrary to the Tenor hereof; And the Presses, Letters, and other Instruments for Printing, wherewith such Book, Ballad, Pourtracture, or other thing or things shall be so Imprinted, or set or prepared for the Printing thereof, to be defaced and made unserviceable; And that no person or persons shall hereafter Print, or cause to be Imprinted, nor shall forge, put or counterfeit in or upon any Book or Pamphlet, the Name, Title, Mark, or Vinnet of any person or persons which hath or shall have lawful Priviledge, Authority or Allowance of sole Printing the same, without the free consent of the person or persons so Priviledged first had and obtained, upon pain that every person and persons so offending, shall forfeit and lose all such Books and Pamphlets, upon which such counterfeit Name or Mark shall be Imprinted, and shall further be proceeded against as an Offender against this present Act.
s. 8. “And be it further enacted, by the Authority aforesaid, that no Haberdasher of Small-wares, Iron-monger, Chandler, Shop-keeper, or other person or persons, whatsoever, not being Licensed in that behalf by the Lord Bishop of the Diocese wherein such Book or Books shall be, nor having been Seven years Apprentice to the Trade of Book-seller, Printer or Book-binder, nor being a Freeman of the City of London by Patrimonial Right, as Son of a Book-seller, Printer, or Book-binder, nor being a Member of the said Company of Stationers, shall within the City or Suburbs of London, or any other Market-Town, or elsewhere, receive, take or buy, to barter, sell again, change or do away any Bibles, Testaments, Psalm-books, Common-Prayer-books, Primers, Abcees, Licensed Almanacks, Grammar, School-books, or other Book or Books whatsoever, upon pain of forfeiture of the same.
s. 9. “And for that Printing is, and for many years hath been an Art and Manufacture of this Kingdom, Therefore for the better encouraging thereof, and the prevention of divers Libels, Pamphlets, and Seditious Books Printed beyond the Seas in English, and thence Transported into this Realm, Be it further enacted and ordained by the authority aforesaid. That no Merchant, Book-seller, or other person or persons whatsoever, shall Imprint, or cause to be Imprinted beyond the Seas, nor shall Import or bring, nor knowingly assist, or consent to the Importation or bringing from beyond the Seas into this Realm, any English Book or Books, or part of any Book which is or shall be, or the greater part thereof is or shall be English, or of the English Tongue, whether the same Book, Books, or part of such Book have been here formerly Printed or not, upon pain of forfeiture of all such English Books so Imprinted or Imported contrary to the tenor hereof: And that no Alien or Foreigner whatsoever shall hereafter bring in, or be suffered to vend here within this Realm, any Book or Books printed beyond the Seas in any Language whatsoever, either by himself, or his Factor or Factors, except such only as be Free-printers or Stationers, of London, or such as have been brought up in that profession, without the special Licence, of the Archbishop of Canterbury, and Bishop of London for the time being, or one of them, who are hereby authorized to grant Licences for that purpose, upon like pain of forfeiture of all such Books as shall be so Imprinted or Vended contrary to the purport and true intent hereof.
s. 10. “And be it further enacted by the Authority aforesaid. That no person or persons within the city of London, or of the Liberties thereof, or elsewhere, shall erect or cause to be erected any Press or Printing-House, nor shall knowingly demise or let, or willingly suffer to be held or used any House, Vault, Cellar, or other Room whatsoever, to or by any person or persons for a Printing-House, or Place to Print in, unless he or they who erect such Press, or shall so knowingly demise or let such House, Cellar, Vault, or Room, or willingly suffer the same to be used, shall first give notice to the Master or Wardens of the said Company of Stationers for the time being, of the erecting of such Press, or of such demise or suffering to Work or Print in such House, Vault, Cellar or Room, And that no Joyner, Carpenter, or other Person shall make any Printing-Press, no Smith shall forge any Iron-work for a Printing-Press, no Founder shall cast any Letters which may be used for Printing for any person or persons whatsoever; neither shall any person or persons bring or cause to be brought in from any Parts beyond the Seas, any Letters Founded or Cast, nor shall buy any such Letters for Printing, Printing-Presses, or other Materials belonging unto Printing, unless he or they respectively shall first acquaint the said Master and Wardens of the said Company of Stationers for the time being, or some or one of them, for whom the said Presses, Iron-work or Letters are to be made, forged, cast, brought or imported, upon pain that every person who shall erect any such Printing-Press, or shall demise or let any House or Room, or suffer the same to be held or used, and every person who shall make any Printing-Press, or any Iron-work for a Printing-Press, or shall make, import, or buy any Letters for Printing, without giving notice, as aforesaid, shall forfeit for every such Offence the sum of Five pounds, the one moiety whereof shall be to the use of our Sovereign Lord the King, his Heirs and Successors, and the other moiety to the use of such person or persons as shall sue for the same.
s. 11. “And be it further enacted by the Authority aforesaid. That for the time to come no Man shall be admitted to be a Master-Printer, until they who are now actually Master-Printers, shall be by death or otherwise, reduced to the number of Twenty, and from thenceforth the number of Twenty Master-Printers shall be continued, and no more, besides the King's Printers, and the Printers allowed for the Universities, to have the use and exercise of Printing of Books at one time, and but Four Master. Founders of Letters for Printing; The which said Master-Printers, and four Master-Founders of Letters for Printing, shall be nominated, appointed and allowed by the Lord Archbishop of Canterbury, and the Lord Bishop of London for the time being; And in case of Death of anyone of the said Four Master-Founders of Letters, or of the said Master-Printers, or of Forfeiture, or Avoidance of any of their places and priviledges to Print by virtue of this Act, for any Offence contrary to the same, or otherwise, That then the Lord Archbishop of Canterbury, and the Lord Bishop of London for the time being, or one of them, shall nominate and appoint such other fit person or persons to succeed and supply the place of such Master-Printer, or Founder of Letters as shall be void by Death, Forfeiture or otherwise, as aforesaid; And every person and persons which shall hereafter be allowed or permitted to have the use of a Printing-Press or Printing-House, upon or before such his allowance obtained, shall become bound with Sureties to his Majesty in the Court of King's-Bench, or before some one or more of the Justices of Assize or the Justices of the Peace at their several Quarter-Sessions, in the sum of Three hundred pounds, not to Print, or suffer to be Printed in his House or Press any Book or Books whatsoever, but such as shall from time to time be lawfully Licensed.
s. 12. “And be it further enacted by the Authority aforesaid. That none of the said Master-Printers to be allowed from time to time, as aforesaid, shall keep above Two Printing-Presses at once, unless he hath been Master or Upper-Warden of the Company, who are hereby allowed to keep Three Presses and no more, unless for some great and special occasion for the Publick he or they have for a time leave of the said Lord Archbishop of Canterbury, or Lord Bishop of London for the time being, to have or use one or more above the aforesaid Number, as their Lordships or either of them shall think fit.
s. 13. “And be it also enacted by the Authority aforesaid, That no Printer or Printers, (except the King's Printers) nor Founder or Founders of Letters for Printing, shall take or retain any more of greater number of Apprentices, than is herein after limited and appointed, (that is to say) Every Master-Printer, and Master-Founder of Letters for Printing, that is or hath been Master or Upper-Warden of his Company, may have Three Apprentices at one time and no more; And every Master-Printer, and Master-Founder of Letters for Printing, that is of the Livery of his Company, may have two Apprentices at one time and no more; And every Master-Printer, and Master-Founder of Letters for Printing, of the Yeomanry of his Company, may have one Apprentice at one time and no more, neither by Co-partnership, binding at the Scriveners, nor any other way whatsoever; Neither shall it be lawful for any Master-Printer or Master-Founder of Letters, when any Apprentice or Apprentices shall run or be put away, to take another Apprentice or other Apprentices in his or their place or places, unless the name or names of him or them so gone away, be rased out of the Hall-Book, and never admitted again.
s. 14. “And because a great part of the secret Printing in Corners hath been caused for want of Orderly Imployment for Journeymen-Printers, The said several Master-Printers, and Master-Founders of Letters for Printing so to be allowed as aforesaid, are hereby required to take special Care, That all Journeymen-Printers, and Journeymen Founders of Letters for Printing, who are lawfully free of the said respective Mysteries, be set on Work, and Imployed in their respective Trades; And if any such Journeyman-Printer, and Journeyman-Founder of Letters, being of honest and good behaviour, and able in his Trade, do want Imployment, he shall repair to any of the said Master-Printers, or Master-Founders of Letters respectively for the time being, who thereupon shall receive him or them into Work, if such Master-Printer or Master-Founder of Letters have not a Journeyman already, although such Master-Printer or Master-Founder of Letters respectively, with his Apprentice or Apprentices be able without the help of the said Journeyman to discharge his own Work, upon pain that every Master-Printer, and Master-Founder of Letters respectively, refusing to receive such Journeyman repairing to him, as aforesaid, shall forfeit Five pounds, to be recovered by Bill, Plaint or Information in any Court of Record, wherein no Essoign, Wager at Law, Priviledge or Protection shall be admitted; the one moiety of which forfeiture shall go to the King's Majesty, his Heirs and Successors, and the other moiety to the Informer who shall sue for the same within six months nex after the said Offence committed; And if any Journeyman, or Journeymen-Printers, or Founders of Letters for Printing, shall refuse Imployment, being offered to him or them by any Master-Printer, or Master-Founder of Letters respectively, or neglect it when he or they have undertaken it, he or they so refusing or neglecting, shall suffer three months Imprisonment at the least, without Bail or Mainprize, upon conviction of such his said refusal or neglect by two Witnesses, before any one or more Justice or Justices of the Peace, who are hereby impowered to hear and examine the said Offence, and to commit the said Offender and Offenders to the Common Gaol of the County where he or they shall be apprehended; And no Master-Printer, or Master-Founder of Letters for Printing, shall from henceforth imploy either to work at the Case or Press, or other-wise about his Printing, any person or persons than such only as are Englishmen and Freemen, or the Sons of Freemen, or Apprentices to the said Trades or Mysteries of Printing, or Founding of Letters for Printing respectively.
s. 15. “And for the better discovering of Printing in Corners without Licence, Be it further enacted by the Authority aforesaid, That one or more of the Messengers of his Majesties Chamber, by Warrant under his Majesties Sign-Manual, or under the Hand of one or more of his Majesties Principal Secretaries of State, or the Master and Wardens of the said Company of Stationers,” or any one of them, shall have power and authority with a Constable, to take unto them such assistance as they shall think needful, and at what time they shall think fit, to search all Houses and Shops where they shall know, or upon some probable reason suspect any Books or Papers to be printed, bound or stitched, especially Printing-houses, Book-sellers Shops and Ware-houses, and Book-binders Houses and Shops, and to view there what is imprinting, binding or stitching, and to examine whether the same be Licensed, and to demand a sight of the said Licence; and if the said Book so imprinting, binding or stitching, shall not be Licensed, then to seize upon so much thereof, as shall be found imprinted, together with the several Offenders, and to bring them before one or more Justices of the Peace, who are hereby authorized and required to commit such Offenders to Prison, there to remain until they shall be tried and acquitted, or convicted and punished for the said Offences: And in case the said Searchers shall upon their said Search, find any Book or Books, or part of Books unlicensed, which they shall suspect to contain matters therein contrary to the Doctrine or Discipline of the Church of England, or against the State and Government; Then upon such Suspicion to seize upon such Book or Books, and to bring the same unto the said Lord Archbishop of Canterbury, and Lord Bishop of London for the time being, or one of them, or to the Secretaries of State, or one of them respectively, who shall take such further course for the suppressing thereof, as to them or any of them shall seem fit.
s. 16. “And be it Ordained and Enacted by the Authority aforesaid. That all and every Printer and Printers of Books, Founder and Founders of Letters for Printing, and all and every other person and persons working in or for the said Trades, who from and after the Tenth day of June, in the year, One thousand six hundred sixty and two, shall offend against this present Act, or any Article, Clause or Thing herein contained, and shall be thereof convicted by Verdict, Confession, or otherwise, shall for the first Offence be disenabled from exercising his respective Trade for the space of three years, And for the second Offence shall for ever thenceafter be disabled to use or exercise the Art or Mystery of Printing, or of Founding Letters for Printing, and shall also have and receive such further punishment by Fine, Imprisonment or other Corporal Punishment, not extending to Life or Limb, as by the Justices of the Court of King's Bench, or Justices of Oyer and Terminer, or Justices of Assize in their several Circuits, or Justices of the Peace in their several Quarter-Sessions shall be thought fit to be inflicted; The which said Justices of the Peace in their several Quarter-Sessions shall have full power and authority to hear and determine all and every Offence and Offences that shall be committed against this Act, or against any branch thereof, upon Indictment or Information by any person or persons to be taken before them in their Sessions of Peace respectively, and shall yearly certifie into the Court of Exchequer, as in other like cases they are bound to do, the Fines by them imposed for any of the Offences aforesaid, and shall and may also by virtue hereof award process and execution for the taking or punishing such Offenders, as in any other case they lawfully may do by any the Laws and Statutes of this Realm.
s. 17. “And be it further enacted by the Authority aforesaid. That every Printer shall reserve three printed Copies of the best and largest Paper of every Book new printed, or reprinted by him with Additions, and shall before any publick Vending of the said Book bring them to the Master of the Company of Stationers, and deliver them to him, one whereof shall be delivered to the Keeper of his Majesties Library, and the other two to be sent to the Vice-Chancellors of the two Universities respectively, for the use of the Publick Libraries of the said Universities.
s. 18. “Provided always. That nothing in this Act contained, shall be construed to extend to the prejudice or infringing of any the just Rights and Priviledges of either of the two Universities of this Realm, touching and concerning the Licensing or Printing of Books in either of the said Universities.
s. 19. “Provided always. That no Search shall at any time be made in the House or Houses of any of the Peers of this Realm, or of any other person or persons not being free of, or using any of the Trades in this Act before mentioned, but by special Warrant from the King's Majesty, under his Sign-Manual, or under the hand of one or both of his Majesties Principal Secretaries of State, or for any other Books than such as are in printing, or shall be printed after the Tenth of June, 1662; any thing in this Act to the contrary thereof in any wise notwithstanding.
s. 20. “Provided also. That neither this Act, nor any thing therein contained, shall extend to prohibit any Bookseller who hath served seven years, and is free of the Company of Stationers, London, from Importing or Bringing into this Realm any Books ready bound not formerly prohibited, which have been printed ten years before the said Importation; any thing in this or any other Act to the contrary notwithstanding.
s. 21. “Provided also, and be it further enacted by the Authority aforesaid, That neither this Act, nor any thing therein contained, shall be construed to prohibit any person or persons to sell Books or Papers, who have sold Books and Papers within Westminster-Hall, the Palace of Westminster, or in any Shop or Shops within twenty yards of the great Gate of Westminster-Hall aforesaid, before the Twentieth day of November, One thousand six hundred sixty and one; but they and every of them may sell Books and Papers as they have or did before the said Twentieth day of November, One thousand six hundred sixty one, within the said Hall, Palace, and Twenty yards aforesaid, but not elsewhere; any thing in this Act to the contrary in any wise notwithstanding.
s. 22. “Provided also, That neither this Act, nor any thing therein contained, shall extend to prejudice the just Rights and Priviledges granted to his Majesty, or any of his Royal Predecessors, to any person or persons, under his Majesties Great Seal, or otherwise, but that such person or persons may exercise and use such Rights and Priviledges, as aforesaid, according to their respective Grants; any thing in this Act to the contrary notwithstanding.
s. 23. “Provided also. That neither this Act, nor any thing therein contained, shall extend to prohibit John Streater Stationer, from Printing Books and Papers, but that he may still follow the Art and Mystery of Printing, as if this Act had never been made; any thing therein to the contrary notwithstanding.
s. 24. “Provided also. That neither this Act, nor any thing therein contained, shall extend to restrain the keeping and using of a Printing-press in the City of York, so as all Books of Divinity there printed, be first Licensed by the Archbishop of York for the time being, or such person or persons whom he shall appoint, and all other Books whatsoever there printed, be first Licensed by such persons respectively to whom the Licensing thereof doth or shall appertain by the Rules herein before-mentioned, and so as no Bibles be there printed, nor any other Book, whereof the Original Copy is or shall be belonging to the Company of Stationers in London, or any Member thereof; and so as the Archbishop or Lord Mayor of York for the time being, do execute within the said City (which they are hereby impowered to do) all the Powers and Rules in this Act concerning Searches for unlicensed Books, and impose and levy the said penalties in the like cases, any thing in this Act to the contrary notwithstanding.
s. 25. “Provided, That this Act shall continue and be in force for two years, to commence from the Tenth of June, One thousand six hundred and sixty and two, and no longer.”