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w:welsh [2018/03/30 02:07] (current)
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 +<< [[contents:​index| Dictionary Index]] << [[contents:​w|Definitions under W]]
  
 +----
 +
 +====== Welsh ======
 +
 +The Welsh alphabet, as now popularly used, contains twenty-eight letters: //a, b, c, ch, d, dd, e,f,ff, g, ng, h, i, I, U, m, h, o, p, ph, rh, r, s, i, tk, u, w, y.// 
 +
 +//J, q, X//, and //z//, are not properly Welsh letters, nor are they wanted in words purely Welsh. ​
 +
 +//K// and //v// occur frequently in old Welsh, but are now generally disused; the place of the former is supplied by //c//, which always has the hard sound, and that of the latter by //​f//​. ​
 +
 +In addition to the common [[a:​accented-letters|accented letters]], the Welsh requires// ŵ// and //ŷ// to be accented likewise; as, gŵr, //a man//; tŷ, //a house//​. ​
 +
 +Of the twenty-one Welsh consonants twelve are immutable, namely, //ch, dd, f, ff, ng, h, l, n, ph, r, s, th//; the remaining nine, //b, c, d, g, ll, m, p, rh, t//, are mutable. These are divisible into three classes of three letters each. The first, containing//​ c, t, p//, is susceptible of three kinds of modification,​ viz. the obtuse, the liquid, and the aspirate; the second class, comprising //g, d, b//, is affected by two kinds, the obtuse and the liquid; and the third, comprising //ll, m, rh//, is susceptible of the obtuse form only. 
 +
 +The following table will show at one view the various changes of the mutable initial consonants: — 
 +
 +
 +
 +^  Primitive Letters ​ ^^  Obtuse ​ ^  Liquid ​ ^  Aspirate ​ ^
 +|  **Class I**     ​| ​ c   ​| ​ g   ​| ​ ngh   ​| ​ ch   |
 +|:::     ​| ​  ​t ​ |  d   ​| ​ nh   ​| ​ th   |
 +|:::     ​| ​ p   ​| ​  ​b ​ |  mh   ​| ​ ph   |
 +|  **Class II**     ​| ​ g   ​| ​ Initial omitted ​  ​| ​ ng   ​| ​    |
 +|:::     ​| ​ d   ​| ​ dd or dh   ​| ​ n   ​| ​    |
 +|:::     ​| ​ b   ​| ​ f   ​| ​  ​m ​ |     |
 +|  **Class III**   ​| ​ ll   ​| ​  ​l ​ |     ​| ​    |
 +|:::     ​| ​ m   ​| ​  ​f ​ |     ​| ​    |
 +|:::     ​| ​  ​rh ​ |  r   ​| ​    ​| ​    |
 +
 +The following examples may be given to show more clearly the nature of these mutations: — 1. Câr, a kinsman; 2. Gwâs, a servant. ​
 +
 +<WRAP small-column>​
 +  * Primitive. Câr agos, //a near kinsman//​. ​
 +  * Obtuse. Ei gâr, //his kinsman//​. ​
 +  * Liquid. Fy nghâr, //my kinsman//​. ​
 +  * Aspirate. Ei châr, //her kinsman//​. ​
 +</​WRAP>​
 +
 +<WRAP small-column>​
 +  * Gwâs ffyddlon, //a faithful servant//​. ​
 +  * Ei wâs, //his servant//​. ​
 +  * Fy ngwâs, //my servant//​. ​
 +</​WRAP>​
 +<WRAP clear></​WRAP>​
 +
 +
 +
 +The obtuse sound is assumed after — 
 +
 +  - All verbs, except of the infinitive mood, and interjections. ​
 +  - All personal pronouns; the possessives DY, //thy//; MAU, //mine//; TAU, //thine//; and EI (masc.) //his//; but not when fem.; the relatives PA,// which//; PWY, //who//; and À, //​that//​. ​
 +  - Adjectives and formative adverbs, and interjections. ​
 +  - The duals DAU and DWY, //​two//​. ​
 +  - All prepositions,​ except YN, //in//, and TUA, //​towards//​. ​
 +  - Pronominal prepositions. ​
 +  - The article Y, //the//, if the object be feminine. ​
 +  - The participial sign YN. 
 +  - The disjunctive sign NEU, //​or//​. ​
 +
 +The liquid sound is assumed after — 
 +
 +  - The possessive pronoun MY or FY, //​my//​. ​
 +  - The word YN when used as the English preposition//​ in//.
 +
 +The aspirate sound is assumed after — 
 +
 +  - The possessive pronoun EI (fem.) //her//.
 +  - The adverbs TRA, //over//; and NI, and NA, //​not//​. ​
 +  - The conjunctions A, //and//; NO,// than//; NEU,// or//; and ONI, //unless//.
 +  - The preposition Â, //​with//​. ​
 +  - The numerals TRI, //three//; and CHWE, //​six//​. ​
 +
 +All vowel initials take //h// before them, after EI (fem.) //her//; EIN,// our//; and EU, //​their//​.  ​
 +
 +Welsh substantives do not vary in their terminations,​ but the cases are distinguished by prepositions changing their initial letters, if mutable, according to their dependance on the preceding word; as, N. tŷ, //a house//; G. dodrefn fy nhŷ, //the furniture of my house//; A. prynodd dŷ, //he bought a house//; Ab. allan o'i thŷ, //out of her house.// ​
 +
 +DEG, //ten//, and PYMTHEG, //​fifteen//,​ before BLYNEDD, //years//, not only change the initial of the following word into its corresponding liquid, but likewise suffer a variation themselves; thus, for DEG BLYNEDD and PYMTHEG BLYNEDD We find DENG MLYNEDD and PYMTHEG MLYNEDD; and for PUMP BLYNEDD we read PUM MLYNEDD, //five years//​. ​
 +//
 +Authorities//​. — Dr. Pughe'​s Welsh Grammar, 2d edit. Denbigh, 1832. — Rev. W. Gambold'​s Welsh Grammar, 3d edit. Bala, 1833 Dr. Prichard on the Celtic Languages, London, 1831. 
 +
 +
 +
 +[<6>]